The environment, human, and animals play an important role in the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Enterococci are members of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and represent important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. Until today, few studies have examined antibiotic susceptibility in enterococci isolated from primates. Therefore, the present study investigated species distribution, antibiotic susceptibility, and resistance genes in enterococci isolated from wild and captive black capuchins monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) in Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. A total of 24 swabs/fecal samples were collected, including 19 from wild monkeys living in two forest fragments [São Sebastião do Caí (SSC) and Santa Cruz do Sul (SCS)], and five in captive [Parque Zoológico da Fundação Zoobotânica (ZOO)], between August 2016 and November 2017. Fifteen colonies were randomly selected from each sample. Enterococci were identified by MALDI-TOF, tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics; and screened for tet(S), tet(M), tet(L), msrC, and erm(B) genes by PCR. Two-hundred ninety-six enterococci were isolated (SSC n = 137; SCS n = 86; ZOO n = 73) and differences in Enterococcus species distribution were detected on three monkey groups, with low abundance in SCS (1 - D = 0.2), followed by ZOO (1 - D = 0.68), and SSC (1 - D = 0.73). The enterococci frequently recovered include the following: Enterococcus faecalis (42.6%), E. hirae (29.1%), and E. faecium (15.9%). Antibiotic-nonsusceptible was observed in 202 (67.9%) strains. The rate of non-susceptibility to rifampicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin was 46%, 26%, 22% and 19%, 13%, 0.3%, and 0.3%, respectively. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, and linezolid. Forty-three (14.52%) isolates were identified as multidrug resistant (MDR), and the highest number of MDR enterococci were E. faecium recovered from wild monkeys living close to a hospital and water treatment plant. Elevated rates of antibiotic resistance genes msrC and tet(L) were isolates from ZOO. In conclusion, differences in the frequency of enterococci species, antibiotic-nonsusceptible and antibiotic resistance genes in all groups of monkeys were identified. These data suggest that anthropogenic activities could have an impact in the resistome of primate gut enterococci communities.
This study discussed the use of antimicrobials in the commercial chicken production system and the possible factors influencing the presence of Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producers strains in the broiler production chain. The aim of this study was to perform longitudinal monitoring of ESBL-producing and fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from poultry farms in southern Brazil (Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states) and determine the possible critical points that may be reservoirs for these strains. Samples of poultry litter, cloacal swabs, poultry feed, water, and beetles (Alphitobius sp.) were collected during three distinct samplings. Phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed for characterization of antimicrobial resistant strains. A total of 117 strains were isolated and 78 (66%) were positive for ESBL production. The poultry litter presented ESBL positive strains in all three sampled periods, whereas the cloacal swab presented positive strains only from the second period. The poultry litter represents a significant risk factor mainly at the beginning poultry production (odds ratio 6.43, 95% confidence interval 1–41.21, p < 0.05). All beetles presented ESBL positive strains. The predominant gene was blaCTX–M group 2, which occurred in approximately 55% of the ESBL-producing E. coli. The cit gene was found in approximately 13% of the ESBL-producing E. coli as AmpC type determinants. A total of 19 out of 26 fosfomycin-resistant strains showed the fosA3 gene, all of which produced ESBL. The correlation between fosA3 and blaCTX–M group 1 (blaCTX–M55) genes was significant among ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from Paraná (OR 3.66, 95% CI 1.9–9.68) and these genetic determinants can be transmitted by conjugation to broiler chicken microbiota strains. Our data revealed that poultry litter and beetles were critical points during poultry production and the presence of fosfomycin-resistant strains indicate the possibility of risks associated with the use of this antimicrobial during production. Furthermore, the genetic determinants encoding CTX-M and fosA3 enzymes can be transferred to E. coli strains from broiler chicken microbiota, thereby creating a risk to public health.
The aim of present study is to characterize the resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from aquaculture excavated ponds and masonry tanks (6 samples) in southern Brazil. Samples were cultured in selective medium, 10 colonies were randomly selected from each sample, which were identified by MALDI-TOF and tested against 13 antimicrobials. The presence of resistance (tetL, tetM, tetS, ermB and msrC) and virulence (ace, esp, agg, cylA and gelE) genes were determined by PCR. A total of 79 enterococci were identified, and Entecococcus faecalis (44.3%) and E. casseliflavus (36.7%) were the most prevalent species isolated. Sixty-five strains (82.3%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, whereas 27 (34.2%) strains were multiresistant. The overall percentages of antimicrobial resistant isolates were: 58.2% to rifampicin, 40.5% to fluoroquinolones, 36.7% to erythromycin and 30.4% to tetracycline. The tetL and tetM genes were found in 57.7% of the tetracycline-resistant strains; and msrC in 31.01% of erythromycin-resistant strains. The most frequently detected virulence factors were ace and gelE genes. Although limited to a single farm, these data suggest that aquaculture may be a reservoir of resistant and virulent enterococci. This study is the first step towards enhancing our understandingof distribution, resistance and virulence profile in enterococci isolated from fish farming environments in the south Brazil.
Os principais hospedeiros do Metapneumovírus aviário (aMPV) são os frangos de corte e perus. O vírus acomete o trato respiratório superior dos perus desencadeando a Rinotraqueíte Viral dos Perus (RVP). O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi padronizar uma técnica de RT-PCR para a detecção do aMPV, por meio do uso do kit AccessQuick™ RT-PCR system (Promega®). Foram utilizados amostras de suabes de traqueia e pulmão de 38 perus comerciais com sintomatologia respiratória e dois suabes oculares de faisão. O RNA viral foi extraído utilizando-se o kit RTP® DNA/RNA Virus Mini Kit (STRATEC Molecular). Em seguida as amostras foram submetidas à RT-PCR One Step, utilizando o kit AccessQuick™ RT-PCR system (Promega®). Todas as 40 amostras testadas por RT-PCR foram negativas, exceto a amostra vacinal que foi utilizada como controle positivo. O aMPV não causa latência em frangos de corte ou perus, logo a excreção viral é limitada. Dessa forma, a ausência da detecção de genoma viral neste estudo pode ser justificada devido à idade que as amostras foram coletadas em perus, com 140 dias no abatedouro, impossibilitando dessa maneira a amplificação do genoma do aMPV. Porém, esse estudo também mostra que a RT-PCR se mostrou eficaz para detectar o genoma viral do aMPV, podendo dessa forma ser utilizado como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico rápido para investigação e estudo de casos de aMPV em rebanho de perus.
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