The production of bulk chemicals and fuels from renewable bio-based feedstocks is of significant importance for the sustainability of human society. Adipic acid, as one of the most-demanded drop-in chemicals from a bioresource, is used primarily for the large-volume production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. It is highly desirable to develop sustainable and environmentally friendly processes for the production of adipic acid from renewable feedstocks. However, currently there is no suitable bio-adipic acid synthesis process. Demonstrated herein is the highly efficient synthetic protocol for the conversion of mucic acid into adipic acid through the oxorhenium-complex-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) reaction and subsequent Pt/C-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation. Quantitative yields (99 %) were achieved for the conversion of mucic acid into muconic acid and adipic acid either in separate sequences or in a one-step process.
3D visual perception tasks, including 3D detection and map segmentation based on multi-camera images, are essential for autonomous driving systems. In this work, we present a new framework termed BEVFormer, which learns unified BEV representations with spatiotemporal transformers to support multiple autonomous driving perception tasks. In a nutshell, BEVFormer exploits both spatial and temporal information by interacting with spatial and temporal space through predefined grid-shaped BEV queries. To aggregate spatial information, we design a spatial cross-attention that each BEV query extracts the spatial features from the regions of interest across camera views. For temporal information, we propose a temporal self-attention to recurrently fuse the history BEV information. Our approach achieves the new state-of-the-art 56.9% in terms of NDS metric on the nuScenes test set, which is 9.0 points higher than previous best arts and on par with the performance of LiDAR-based baselines. We further show that BEVFormer remarkably improves the accuracy of velocity estimation and recall of objects under low visibility conditions. The code will be released at https://github.com/zhiqi-li/BEVFormer.
The geometrical rule of molecular packing parameters in a bolaamphiphile solution was tested with experimental results. By modifying the solution conditions to change the molecular packing parameters, the morphology of the aggregate was successfully manipulated in a single-chain bolaamphiphile, disodium phenyl-1,4-bis (oxyhexanoate) (i.e., C6PhC6Na2 solution). Micelle-vesicle-tube transformation was observed by changing the pH and the addition of NaBr or octanol. In the mixed systems of oppositely charged bola/surfactants, the molecular packing parameter's role is related to the mixing ratio.
Cationic gemini surfactant homologues alkanediyl-alpha,omega-bis(dodecyldiethylammonium) bromide, [C12H25(CH3CH2)2N(CH2)SN(CH2CH3)2C12H25]Br2, where S = 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12, referred to as C12CSC12(Et), and cationic bolaamphiphiles BPHEAB (biphenyl-4,4'-bis(oxyhexamethylenetriethylammonium) bromide), PHEAB (phenyl-4,4'- bis(oxyhexamethylenetriethylammonium) bromide) were synthesized, and their aggregation behaviors in aqueous solution were studied and compared by means of dynamic light scattering, fluorescence entrapment, and transmission electron microscopy. Spherical vesicles were found in the aqueous solutions of these gemini and bola surfactants, which can be attributed to the increase of the hydrocarbon parts of the polar headgroup of the surfactants. In combination with the result of the other gemini with headgroup of propyl group, the increase of the hydrophobic parts of the surfactant polar headgroup will be beneficial to enhance the aggregation capability of the gemini and bola surfactants. Both of the vesicles formed in the gemini and bola systems showed good stabilities with time and temperature, but different stability with salt due to the different membrane conformations of surfactant molecules in the vesicles.
Cationic gemini surfactant dimethylene-1,2-bis(dodecyldiethylammonium bromide), referred to as C12C2C12(Et), was synthesized. The effect of sodium salicylate (NaSal) on the assembly formation and transition of this cationic gemini surfactant solution was studied. Addition of NaSal induced rich aggregate morphologies in the C12C2C12(Et) system. The microstructures and rheological responses resulting from the addition of NaSal were studied systematically to explore the interaction between gemini surfactants and hydrotropic salts. The rich aggregation behavior can be attributed to the special molecular structure of the gemini surfactant and the appropriate interaction between the surfactant and NaSal. The study of gemini surfactant and hydrotropic salt interaction brings promise for applications in materials synthesis as soft templates.
A cationic gemini surfactant, dodecanediyl-1,12-bis(dodecyldiethylammonium bromide) (C12C12C12(Et)), in aqueous solutions with varying NaBr concentration was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS). As a comparison, its single-chained counterpart, dodecyl triethylammonium bromide (DTEAB), was also investigated under the same conditions. Similar to the case of a polyelectrolyte, C12C12C12(Et) underwent a typical "ordinary-to-extraordinary (o-e) transition" with decreasing salt concentration to zero. At higher salt concentration, a single relaxation mode, corresponding to the diffusion of regular micelles, was observed. While in the "extraordinary regime", DLS detected two characteristic relaxation modes with the values of the diffusion coefficient being different by at least 2 orders. The fast mode was consistent with the polyion-small ion coupled-mode theories, as well as the direct polyion-polyion repulsion interactions. Because the slow mode disappeared at elevated salt concentrations and generated negligible scattered intensity, we attributed it to multimacroion domains.
The phase behavior as well as the microstructures of the cationic gemini surfactant and anionic conventional surfactant aqueous two-phase system (ASTP) have been studied. The ASTP formation can be attributed to the coexistence of different kinds of aggregates in the upper and lower phases. The effects of temperature, shearing, surfactant concentration and mixing molar ratio on the phase separation of the ASTP-forming systems are systematically investigated. The ASTP can be destroyed by applying shear and increasing temperature. In this process, the lamellar structures (flat bilayers) in the ASTP are transformed into vesicles. Variation of surfactant structure also affects the phase behavior and the aggregates transformation. Appropriate molecular packing is crucial for the formation of ASTP.
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