Phase-field models, sometimes refered to as gradient damage or smeared crack models, are widely used methods for the numerical simulation of crack propagation in brittle materials. Theoretical results and numerical evidences show that they can predict the propagation of a pre-existing crack according to Griffith' criterion. For a one-dimensional problem, it has been shown that they can predict nucleation upon a critical stress, provided that regularization parameter be identified with the material's internal or characteristic length. In this article, we draw on numerical simulations to study crack nucleation in commonly encountered geometries for which closed-form solutions are not available. We use U-and V-notches to show that the nucleation load varies smoothly from that predicted by a strength criterion to that of a toughness criterion, when the strength of the stress concentration or singularity varies. We present validation and verifications numerical simulations for both types of geometries. We consider the problem of an elliptic cavity in an infinite or elongated domain to show that variational phase field models properly account for structural and material size effects. We conclude that variational phase-field models can accurately predict crack nucleation through energy minimization in a nonlinear damage model instead of introducing ad-hoc criteria.
International audienceIn this contribution we propose a dynamic gradient damage model as a phase-field approach for studying brutal fracture phenomena in quasi-brittle materials under impact-type loading conditions. Several existing approaches to account for the tension-compression asymmetry of fracture behavior of materials are reviewed. A better understanding of these models is provided through a uniaxial traction experiment. We then give an efficient numerical implementation of the model in an explicit dynamics context. Simulations results obtained with parallel computing are discussed both from a computational and physical point of view. Different damage constitutive laws and tension-compression asymmetry formulations are compared with respect to their aptitude to approximate brittle fracture
The main objective of this paper is to numerically investigate the use of fiber-dependent viscosity models in injection molding simulations of short fiber reinforced thermoplastics with a latest commercial software. We propose to use the homogenization-based anisotropic rheological model to take into account flowfiber coupling effects. The 4th-order viscosity tensor is approximated by an optimal scalar model and then implemented in the Moldflow Insight API framework. Numerical simulations are performed for a test-case rectangular plate with three fiber orientation models. The resulting coupled flow kinematics and fiber evolutions are then compared to the standard uncoupled simulations. Interpretations are given based on detailed post-processing of the field results. Certain deformation conditions are expected to be better taken into account, which may also in return lead to an improved fiber orientation prediction. Preliminary confrontation between flow-fiber coupled simulations and existing experimental data is then presented at the end of the paper.
A series of twelve two coordinate coinage metal, Cu, Ag and Au, complexes with carbene metal amide structures were prepared. They all present thermal assisted delayed fluorescence (TADF) emission from...
In this paper we present a family of gradient-enhanced continuum damage models which can be viewed as a regularization of the variational approach to fracture capable of predicting in a unified framework the onset and space-time dynamic propagation (growth, kinking, branching, arrest) of complex cracks in quasi-brittle materials under severe dynamic loading. The dynamic evolution problem for a general class of such damage models is formulated as a variational inequality involving the action integral of a generalized Lagrangian and its physical interpretation is given. Finite-element based implementation is then detailed and mathematical optimization methods are directly used at the structural scale exploiting fully the variational nature of the formulation. Finally, the link with the classical dynamic Griffith theory and with the original quasi-static model as well as various dynamic fracture phenomena are illustrated by representative numerical examples in quantitative accordance with theoretical or experimental results.
In this paper, we propose a novel systematic procedure to minimize the discrepancy between the numerically predicted and the experimentally measured fiber orientation results on an injection-molded part. Fiber orientation model parameters are optimized simultaneously using Latin hypercube sampling and kriging-based adaptive surrogate modeling techniques. Via an adequate discrepancy measure, the optimized solution possesses correct skin–shell–core structure and global orientation evolution throughout the considered center-gated disk. Some non-trivial interaction between these parameters and flow-fiber coupling effects as well as their quantitative importance are illustrated. The parametric fine-tuning of orientation models mostly leads to a better agreement in the skin and shell regions, while the coupling effect via a fiber-dependent viscosity improves prediction in the core.
Background: Gradient damage models can be acknowledged as a unified framework of dynamic brittle fracture. As a phase-field approach to fracture, they are gaining popularity over the last few years in the computational mechanics community. This paper concentrates on a better understanding of these models. We will highlight their properties during the initiation and propagation phases of defect evolution. Methods: The variational ingredients of the dynamic gradient damage model are recalled. Temporal discretization based on the Newmark-β scheme is performed. Several energy release rates in gradient damage models are introduced to bridge the link from damage to fracture. Results and discussion: An antiplane tearing numerical experiment is considered. It is found that the phase-field crack tip is governed by the asymptotic Griffith's law. In the absence of unstable crack propagation, the dynamic gradient damage model converges to the quasi-static one. The defect evolution is in quantitative accordance with the linear elastic fracture mechanics predictions. Conclusion: These numerical experiments provide a justification of the dynamic gradient damage model along with its current implementation, when it is used as a phase-field model for complex real-world dynamic fracture problems.
International audienceWe propose in this contribution to investigate the link between the dynamic gradient damage model and the classical Griffith's theory of dynamic fracture during the crack propagation phase. To achieve this main objective, we first rigorously reformulate two-dimensional linear elastic dynamic fracture problems using variational methods and shape derivative techniques. The classical equation of motion governing a smoothly propagating crack tip follows by considering variations of a space-time action integral. We then give a variationally consistent framework of the dynamic gradient damage model. Owing to the analogies between the variational ingredients of these two models and under some basic assumptions concerning the damage band structuration, one obtains a generalized Griffith criterion which governs the crack tip evolution within the non-local damage model. Assuming further that the internal length is small compared to the dimension of the body, the previous criterion leads to the classical Griffith's law through a separation of scales between the outer linear elastic domain and the inner damage process zone
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