Background ART is typically begun weeks after HIV diagnosis. We assessed the acceptability, feasibility, safety and efficacy of initiating ART on the same day as diagnosis. Methods We studied a clinic-based cohort consisting of consecutive patients who were referred with new HIV diagnosis between June 2013 and December 2014. A subset of patients with acute or recent infection (<6 months) or CD4<200 were managed according to a “RAPID” care initiation protocol. An intensive, same-day appointment included social needs assessment; medical provider evaluation; and a first ART dose offered after labs were drawn. Patient acceptance of ART, drug toxicities, drug resistance and time to viral suppression outcomes were compared between RAPID participants and contemporaneous patients (who were not offered the program), as well as with an historical cohort. Results Among 86 patients, 39 were eligible and managed on the RAPID protocol. 37 (94.9%) of 39 in RAPID began ART within 24 hours. Minor toxicity with the initial regimen occurred in two (5.1%) of intervention patients versus none in the non-intervention group. Loss to follow-up was similar in intervention (10.3%) and non-intervention patients (14.9%) during the study. Time to virologic suppression (<200 copies HIV RNA/mL) was significantly faster (median 1.8 months) among intervention-managed patients when compared with patients treated in the same clinic under prior recommendations for universal ART (4.3 months; p=0.0001). Conclusions Treatment for HIV infection can be started on the day of diagnosis without impacting the safety or acceptability of ART. Same-day ART may shorten the time to virologic suppression.
Background The multi-morbid burden and use of systemic immunosuppressants in people with psoriasis may confer greater risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes but data are limited. Objective Characterize the course of COVID-19 in psoriasis and identify factors associated with hospitalization. Methods Clinicians reported psoriasis patients with confirmed/suspected COVID-19 via an international registry, PsoProtect. Multiple logistic regression assessed the association between clinical/demographic characteristics and hospitalization. A separate patient-facing registry characterized risk-mitigating behaviours. Results Of 374 clinician-reported patients from 25 countries, 71% were receiving a biologic, 18% a non-biologic and 10% no systemic treatment for psoriasis. 348 (93%) fully recovered from COVID-19, 77 (21%) were hospitalized and nine (2%) died. Increased hospitalization risk was associated with older age (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.59 per 10 years, 95% CI 1.19-2.13), male sex (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.23-5.12), non-white ethnicity (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.24-8.03) and comorbid chronic lung disease (OR 3.87, 95% CI 1.52-9.83). Hospitalization was more frequent in patients using non-biologic systemic therapy than biologics (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.31-6.18). No significant differences were found between biologic classes. Independent patient-reported data (n=1,626 across 48 countries) suggested lower levels of social isolation in individuals receiving non-biologic systemic therapy compared to biologics (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.94). Conclusion In this international moderate-severe psoriasis case series, biologics use was associated with lower risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization than non-biologic systemic therapies, however further investigation is warranted due to potential selection bias and unmeasured confounding. Established risk factors (being older, male, non-white ethnicity, comorbidities) were associated with higher hospitalization rates. Clinical Implications We identify risk factors for COVID-19-related hospitalization in psoriasis patients, including older age, male sex, non-white ethnicity and comorbidities. Use of biologics was associated with lower hospitalization risk than non-biologic systemic therapies.
With an increasing prevalence during the past decades, atopic dermatitis has become a global health issue. A literature search following a targeted approach was undertaken to perform this non-systematic review, which intends to provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, comorbidities, and current therapies for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. In sum, this is a heterogeneous skin disorder associated with variable morphology, distribution, and disease course. Although not completely understood, its pathogenesis is complex and seems to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors that induce skin barrier dysfunction, cutaneous and systemic immune dysregulation, skin microbiota dysbiosis, and a strong genetic influence. Diagnosis is based on specific criteria that consider patient and family history and clinical manifestations. Overall disease severity must be determined by evaluating both objective signs and subjective symptoms. Therapeutic goals require a multistep approach, focusing on reducing pruritus and establishing disease control. Patients should be advised on basic skin care and avoidance of triggers. Topical anti-inflammatory agents should be considered in disease flares or chronic/recurrent lesions. In case of inadequate response, phototherapy, systemic immunosuppressants and, more recently, dupilumab, should be added. Nevertheless, the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis remains challenging and novel, efficacious, safe and targeted treatments are urgently needed. In conclusion, although the last few years have seen important improvement in the understanding of the disease, future research in atopic dermatitis will continue exploring gene-environment interactions and how it affects pathophysiology, disease severity, and treatment outcomes.
Palmoplantar psoriasis and palmoplantar pustulosis are chronic skin diseases with a large impact on patient quality of life. They are frequently refractory to treatment, being generally described as a therapeutic challenge. This article aims to review the definitions of palmoplantar psoriasis and palmoplantar pustulosis, highlighting the similarities and differences in terms of epidemiology, clinical presentation, genetics, histopathology, and pathogenesis, as well as treatment options for both entities. Classical management of mild to moderate palmoplantar pustulosis and palmoplantar psoriasis relies on use of potent topical corticosteroids, phototherapy, and/or acitretin. Nevertheless, these drugs have proven to be insufficient in long-term control of extensive disease. Biologic therapy-namely, anti-interleukin-17 agents and phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors-has recently shown promising results in the treatment of palmoplantar psoriasis. Knowledge of the pathophysiologic pathways of both entities is of utmost importance and may, in the future, allow development of molecularly targeted therapeutics.
Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and has been considered a risk factor for periodontal disease. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to verify the scientific evidence for the association of periodontal attachment loss with low BMD in postmenopausal women. A systematic search of the literature was performed in databases until August 2016, in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligibility criteria included studies that compared clinical attachment loss (CAL) between postmenopausal women with low and normal BMD. Studies using similar methodology, with lower and higher risk of bias, were pooled into 3 different meta-analyses to compare CAL among women with normal BMD, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. In the first meta-analysis, mean CAL was compared among groups. In the other 2 meta-analyses, the mean percentages of sites with CAL ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm were respectively compared among groups. From 792 unique citations, 26 articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Eleven of the studies were appraised as presenting low risk of bias, and the association between low BMD and CAL was observed in 10 of these studies. Thirteen cross-sectional articles were included in the meta-analysis for osteoporosis and 9 in the osteopenia analysis. Women with low BMD presented greater mean CAL than those with normal BMD (osteoporosis = 0.34 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.49], P < 0.001; osteopenia = 0.07 mm [95% CI, 0.01-0.13], P = 0.02). Only studies with lower risk of bias were available for the analysis of CAL severity. Women with low BMD presented more severe attachment loss, represented as mean percentage of sites with CAL ≥4 mm (osteoporosis = 3.04 [95% CI, 1.23-4.85], P = 0.001; osteopenia = 1.74 [95% CI, 0.36-3.12], P = 0.01) and CAL ≥6 mm (osteoporosis = 5.07 [95% CI, 2.74-7.40], P < 0.001). This systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia may exhibit greater CAL compared with women with normal BMD.
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