As atividades antrópicas têm alterado profundamente os ambientes naturais e muitas vezes afetado a diversidade e distribuição dos anuros. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as seguintes questões: (1) qual a composição da anurofauna em uma região de pastagem com clima marcadamente sazonal no extremo noroeste paulista? (2) como adultos e girinos das espécies se distribuem temporal e espacialmente? (3) a riqueza de espécies está correlacionada com descritores da heterogeneidade dos hábitats de reprodução? Na área estudada foram registradas 20 espécies de anuros, distribuídas em 11 gêneros de quatro famílias: Leptodactylidae (9), Hylidae (8), Microhylidae (2) e Bufonidae (1). Destas, Chaunus schneideri (Werner, 1894), Physalaemus centralis Bokermann, 1962 e Physalaemus fuscomaculatus (Steindachner, 1864) foram registradas apenas por coleta de girinos, enquanto Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872) e Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (Spix, 1824) ocorreram somente em corpos d'água próximos aos selecionados. As espécies registradas são conhecidas por sua ampla distribuição geográfica e por colonizarem áreas alteradas em outras localidades. Não houve correlação entre a riqueza de espécies e a complexidade estrutural dos corpos d'água. Entretanto, a maior riqueza de espécies foi registrada nos corpos d'água de longa duração. As poças temporárias de hidroperíodo instável foram colonizadas inicialmente por leptodactilídeos, enquanto que as poças permanentes ou temporárias estáveis foram colonizadas por hilídeos. A atividade de vocalização e de reprodução da maioria das espécies foi restrita ao período quente e chuvoso do ano, um padrão típico de ambientes tropicais sazonais. Cinco espécies [Chaunus schneideri, Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889), Hypsiboas albopunctatus Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus podicipinus (Cope, 1862) e Pseudopaludicola aff. saltica (Cope, 1887)] vocalizaram durante a estação seca e chuvosa, mas apenas C. schneideri e H. albopunctatus se reproduziram durante o período seco. A fraca partilha espacial e temporal, registrada para adultos e girinos, não foi suficiente para explicar o isolamento reprodutivo entre as espécies. Outros fatores, como a partilha acústica e a segregação dos sítios de vocalização, podem ter maior importância para explicar a coexistência das espécies. A severidade climática (extensa e pronunciada estação seca, imprevisibilidade e inconstância das chuvas no início da estação chuvosa), juntamente com o elevado grau de conversão do hábitat natural em áreas de cultivo são, provavelmente, os fatores responsáveis pelo predomínio de espécies conhecidas por colonizar com sucesso áreas antrópicas em outras regiões do país.
Abstract:Because anuran species are highly dependent on environmental variables, we hypothesized that anuran species richness and the number of reproductive modes from different Brazilian localities vary according to climatic and altitudinal variables. Published data were compiled from 36 Brazilian localities and climatic and altitudinal data were extracted from an available database. A partial redundancy analysis (pRDA) showed that 23.5% of the data set's variation was explained by climatic and altitudinal data, while the remaining 76.5% remained unexplained. This analysis suggests that other factors not analysed herein may also be important for predicting anuran species richness and the number of reproductive modes in Brazil. Altitude and total annual rainfall were positively correlated with anuran species richness and the number of reproductive modes, and total annual rainfall was strongly associated with these two biotic variables in the triplot of pRDA. The positive association of total annual rainfall and the negative association of the concentration of annual rainfall were already expected based on physiological and reproductive requirements of anurans. On the other hand, temperature was not associated with richness or the number of reproductive modes.
We hypothesized that the environmental heterogeneity of breeding ponds influences the species composition and species richness of anuran assemblages from southeastern Brazil, because it provides humidity, shelter, and breeding microhabitats for anuran species, which can result in an increasing number of species in a given habitat. To begin, we tested whether the occurrence of anuran species in each breeding pond is different from a null model of random placement of species in those ponds. We then performed two tests to evaluate which of the five environmental descriptors of breeding ponds influence (1) the species composition and (2) species richness. Species composition of the 38 breeding ponds was correlated with number of edge types, number of plant types along the edges of the breeding ponds, and the hydroperiod. Neither the percentage of vegetation cover on the water’s surface nor the size of the breeding ponds were correlated with species composition. Only the number of edge types was correlated with species richness of breeding ponds. The correlation of three environmental descriptors with species composition and one environmental descriptor with species richness, as well as the high beta diversity among breeding ponds, suggest that the analyses of environmental heterogeneity on species composition was more informative than was the analysis for species richness, because breeding ponds with similar species richness can have distinct species composition among them (high beta diversity).
ABSTRACT. Temporal and spatial distribution of anurans in the Pampa Region (Santa Maria, RS).The present study aimed to determine the richness, occurrence constancy, reproductive modes, standard of abundance distribution, season of vocalization and to test correlation among climatic variables and activity of vocalization of anurans in a region of the Pampa Biome, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State. During the period of November/2001 to October/2002 monthly collections were carried out utilizing the 'survey at breeding site' method and examination of specimens kept in the Coleção Herpetológica do Setor de Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (ZUFSM). The occurrence of 25 species of anurans was recorded. The anurofauna recorded represents 30% of the species known to occur in Rio Grande do Sul, and comprises species generally associated with grasslands in this state and neighboring countries. Four reproductive modes were recorded: mode 1 (14 species; 58.3%); mode 11 and 30 (9 species; 37.5%) and mode 24 (1 species; 4.2%). The low diversification of reproductive modes is likely related to the homogeneity of the grassland habitat. Most species were constant or accessory in the study area and the species abundance distribution patterns fit in the Broken Stick and Log-normal models, characterized by homogeneity of species abundance distribution. Most species showed great plasticity in habitat, but few were plastic in vocalization sites use. There was a weak positive correlation between species richness and precipitation. There was also a weak positive correlation between the abundance of species calling activity and maximum average temperatures. These correlations indicated that, in the study area, the abundance of calling males is more affected by the temperature, and species richness is more affected by precipitation, despite the fact that significantly higher species richness occurs during the hottest period of the year. These results showed that the climatological variables examined were not enough to explain the seasonal occurrence of species, thus the influence of other environmental variables merit to be tested in future studies. KEYWORDS.Anuran community, abundance models, reproductive modes, seasonality, subtropical region. RESUMO.Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a riqueza, a constância de ocorrência, os modos reprodutivos, o padrão de distribuição da abundância, a temporada de vocalização e testar a correlação das variáveis climáticas sobre a atividade de vocalização dos anuros em uma região do Bioma Pampa, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Durante o período de novembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002 foram realizadas coletas mensais empregando o método de 'busca em sítio de reprodução' e exame de exemplares depositados na Coleção Herpetológica do Setor de Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (ZUFSM). Foi registrada a ocorrência de 25 espécies de anuros. A anurofauna registrada corresponde a 30% das espécies encontradas no Rio Grande do Sul e normalmente está associada a áreas abertas...
We evaluated tadpole communities of temporary and permanent ponds, in order to understand how community richness varies monthly in a subtropical humid climate, to interpret the community structure in relation to biotic and abiotic environmental variables related to the temporary and permanent ponds. The study site was the Pró-Mata Research and Nature Conservation Center, a private reserve in southern Brazil. The climate is classified as Temperate Superhumid, with no dry season. We sampled three temporary and three permanent ponds. We compared the richness of tadpole assemblages of permanent and temporary ponds through individual-based rarefaction curves, and tested for possible differences using a MANOVA test. Tadpole richness was related to temporal environmental descriptors through General Regression Model. Relationships between the tadpole assemblages and possible predictors of their spatial variation were measured using a partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Analysis of rarefaction curves indicated higher expected richness for the temporary ponds. The mean values of richness were significantly different between the two hydroperiods across all months. Monthly richness showed the same tendency of variation for both pond types. Only temperature was related to tadpole richness. The pCCA analysis was significant. The most important predictors on the first pCCA axis were vegetation cover, conductivity, depth, and predator diversity. In this study, vegetation cover, conductivity, predator diversity, and water depth explained the spatial variation of tadpoles between ponds, with tadpole richness and diversity being higher in temporary than in permanent ponds. Our results suggest that different spatial-seasonal patterns operating in temporary and permanent ponds are related to maintaining the species diversity of pond-breeding anurans.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.