ke Sjöholm. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients with stable coronary artery disease.
IMPORTANCEThe majority of individuals with type 1 diabetes do not meet recommended glycemic targets.OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTSOpen-label crossover randomized clinical trial conducted in 15 diabetes outpatient clinics in Sweden between February 24, 2014, and June 1, 2016 that included 161 individuals with type 1 diabetes and hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) of at least 7.5% (58 mmol/mol) treated with multiple daily insulin injections.INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to receive treatment using a continuous glucose monitoring system or conventional treatment for 26 weeks, separated by a washout period of 17 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURESDifference in HbA 1c between weeks 26 and 69 for the 2 treatments. Adverse events including severe hypoglycemia were also studied. RESULTS Among 161 randomized participants, mean age was 43.7 years, 45.3% were women, and mean HbA 1c was 8.6% (70 mmol/mol). A total of 142 participants had follow-up data in both treatment periods. Mean HbA 1c was 7.92% (63 mmol/mol) during continuous glucose monitoring use and 8.35% (68 mmol/mol) during conventional treatment (mean difference, −0.43% [95% CI, −0.57% to −0.29%] or −4.7 [−6.3 to −3.1 mmol/mol]; P < .001). Of 19 secondary end points comprising psychosocial and various glycemic measures, 6 met the hierarchical testing criteria of statistical significance, favoring continuous glucose monitoring compared with conventional treatment. Five patients in the conventional treatment group and 1 patient in the continuous glucose monitoring group had severe hypoglycemia. During washout when patients used conventional therapy, 7 patients had severe hypoglycemia.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections, the use of continuous glucose monitoring compared with conventional treatment for 26 weeks resulted in lower HbA 1c . Further research is needed to assess clinical outcomes and longer-term adverse effects.
The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors of metabolic origin that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A proposed central event in metabolic syndrome is a decrease in the amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Recently, an alternative pathway for NO formation in mammals was described where inorganic nitrate, a supposedly inert NO oxidation product and unwanted dietary constituent, is serially reduced to nitrite and then NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. Here we show that several features of metabolic syndrome that develop in eNOS-deficient mice can be reversed by dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate, in amounts similar to those derived from eNOS under normal conditions. In humans, this dose corresponds to a rich intake of vegetables, the dominant dietary nitrate source. Nitrate administration increased tissue and plasma levels of bioactive nitrogen oxides. Moreover, chronic nitrate treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and circulating levels of triglycerides and reversed the prediabetic phenotype in these animals. In rats, chronic nitrate treatment reduced blood pressure and this effect was also present during NOS inhibition. Our results show that dietary nitrate fuels a nitratenitrite-NO pathway that can partly compensate for disturbances in endogenous NO generation from eNOS. These findings may have implications for novel nutrition-based preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.glucose | insulin | s-nitrosothiol | obesity | bacteria
AimsTo compare the sodium‐glucose‐cotransporter‐2 (SGLT‐2) inhibitor dapagliflozin with dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐4) inhibitors with regard to risk associations with major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE; non‐fatal myocardial infarction, non‐fatal stroke or cardiovascular mortality), hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), atrial fibrillation and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a real‐world setting.MethodsAll patients with T2D prescribed glucose‐lowering drugs (GLDs) during 2012 to 2015 were identified in nationwide registries in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Patients were divided into two groups: new users of dapagliflozin and new users of DPP‐4 inhibitors, matched 1:3 by propensity score, calculated by patient characteristics, comorbidities and drug treatment. Cox survival models were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) per country separately, and a weighted average was calculated.ResultsAfter matching, a total of 40 908 patients with T2D were identified as new users of dapagliflozin (n = 10 227) or a DPP‐4 inhibitor (n = 30 681). The groups were well balanced at baseline; their mean age was 61 years and 23% had CV disease. The mean follow‐up time was 0.95 years, with a total of 38 760 patient‐years. Dapagliflozin was associated with a lower risk of MACE, HHF and all‐cause mortality compared with DPP‐4 inhibitors: HRs 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67‐0.94), 0.62 (95% CI 0.50‐0.77), and 0.59 (95% CI 0.49‐0.72), respectively. Numerically lower, but non‐significant HRs were observed for myocardial infarction (0.91 [95% CI 0.72‐1.16]), stroke (0.79 [95% CI 0.61‐1.03]) and CV mortality (0.76 [95% CI 0.53‐1.08]) Neutral associations with atrial fibrillation and severe hypoglycaemia were observed.ConclusionsDapagliflozin was associated with lower risks of CV events and all‐cause mortality compared with DPP‐4 inhibitors in a real‐world clinical setting and a broad T2D population.
Type 2 diabetes is increasingly common worldwide and is beginning to strike younger age groups. Almost 90% of all patients with diabetes show insulin resistance, which also precedes the first symptoms of diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the development of insulin resistance are not well understood. In recent years, several studies have been published that implicate subclinical chronic inflammation as an important pathogenetic factor in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This opens new perspectives for diagnosis and treatment of early insulin resistance and incipient glucose intolerance. Surrogate markers for this low‐grade chronic inflammation include CRP, IL‐6 and TNF‐α. Some antidiabetic agents, for example, glitazones that reduce insulin resistance, and insulin itself, reduce inflammation. Conversely, antiinflammatory drugs (ASA/NSAID) may improve glucose tolerance. Vasoactive drugs that are often prescribed to people with diabetes, for example, statins and ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor antagonists, also counteract inflammation and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. More specific and sensitive biomarkers should be identified, which may predict early disturbances in insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk. Also, inflammatory signalling pathways need to be explored in greater detail, and may form the basis of drugable targets against the epidemic of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hyperprolactinemia has been associated with impaired metabolism, including insulin resistance. However, the metabolic effects of elevated prolactin (PRL) levels are not completely clarified. The aim of this study was to obtain more insights of metabolic consequences in hyperprolactinemia patients. Fourteen consecutive patients, eight women and six men, aged 39.7 (±13.7) years with prolactinomas (median PRL 72 [49-131] μg/L in women and 1,260 [123-9,600] μg/L in men) were included. Anthropometric data and metabolic values were studied before and after 2 and 6 months on DA agonists (Bromocriptine [5.7 (±3.9) mg/day, n = 13] or Cabergoline [0.5 mg/week, n = 1]). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were studied in six patients before and after 6 months of treatment. PRL normalized in all patients. Anthropometric data changed only in males with a significant decrease of median body weight (95.6 [80.7-110.1] to 83.4 [77.8-99.1] kg, P = 0.046), waist circumference and fat percentage after 6 months. LDL cholesterol was positively correlated to PRL at diagnosis (r = 0.62, P = 0.025) and decreased within 2 months (3.4 [±0.9] to 2.9 [±0.6] mmol/L, P = 0.003). Insulin, IGFBP-1 and total adiponectin levels did not change. Insulin sensitivity tended to improve after 6 months; M-value from 5.7 (±1.8) to 7.8 (±2.6) mg/kg/min, P = 0.083 and per cent improvement in M-value was correlated to per cent reduction in PRL levels (r = -0.85, P = 0.034). In conclusion, beneficial metabolic changes were seen in prolactinoma patients after treatment with DA agonists, underscoring the importance of an active treatment approach and to consider the metabolic profile in the clinical management of hyperprolactinemia patients.
Type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for stroke. Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in clinical use against type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the potential antistroke efficacy of linagliptin in type 2 diabetic mice. To understand whether efficacy was mediated by glycemia regulation, a comparison with the sulfonylurea glimepiride was done. To determine whether linagliptin-mediated efficacy was dependent on a diabetic background, experiments in nondiabetic mice were performed. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding the mice a high-fat diet for 32 weeks. Mice were treated with linagliptin/glimepiride for 7 weeks. Stroke was induced at 4 weeks into the treatment by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Blood DPP-4 activity, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels, glucose, body weight, and food intake were assessed throughout the experiments. Ischemic brain damage was measured by determining stroke volume and by stereologic quantifications of surviving neurons in the striatum/cortex. We show pronounced antistroke efficacy of linagliptin in type 2 diabetic and normal mice, whereas glimepiride proved efficacious against stroke in normal mice only. These results indicate a linagliptin-mediated neuroprotection that is glucose-independent and likely involves GLP-1. The findings may provide an impetus for the development of DPP-4 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of stroke in diabetic patients.
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