Commercial Delicious apple essence was extracted to yield an oil with a strong apple-like aroma.This oil was separated into its components with high-resolution packed and opentubular gas chromatographic columns. Fiftysix compounds were identified, mainly by a combination of mass spectrometry and gas-chromatographic retention data. While many of these compounds contribute to over-all Delicious apple essence aroma, the main components directly associated with characteristic apple-like aroma were ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, hexanal, and 2-hexenal.
Volatiles from California Valencia orange juice low in peel oil were removed under vacuum in a Kontro evaporator. The organic constituents were extracted with ether and examined by capillary gas‐liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry in combination. Constituents of relatively high water solubility were found mainly in the first condensers of the essence recovery system, whereas sesquiterpenoids were more prominent in a downstream colder condenser. The major esters of the juice were found to be ethyl 3‐hydroxy‐hexanoate (a new orange volatile) and ethyl acetate. Nine other previously unreported orange volatiles were identified, and the presence of seven others, previously identified only tentatively, was confirmed.
The organic volatiles in commercial Delicious apple essence were extracted and reduced to an oil by five different extractants: isopentane, diethyl ether, charcoal (with elution by ether), liquid carbon dioxide, and 1,2‐dichloro‐1,1,2,2‐tetrafluoroethane. Identification and quantitative estimation of the maior constituents were made by gas‐liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Isopentane and the fluorocarbon were similar in action. Compared with ether they gave lower recoveries, especially for the low‐molecular‐weight alcohols, but they gave extracts with higher concentrations of esters and aldehydes and thus are useful for further composition studies. Liquid carbon dioxide gave an extract similar to that given by ether.
Adsorption on charcoal gave generally good recoveries and was outstanding for alcohols. Panel tests indicated that the low‐molecular‐weight alcohols have only minor importance, if any, to apple aroma. A major proportion of the principal aroma‐bearing constituents was extracted by the methods used.
Samples of female coyote urine were taken once or twice each week during the winter and spring for two years. Headspace analysis was employed with Tenax GC trapping and GC-MS. Tenax trapping was started in less than 1 hr after sampling, and mild conditions were used to minimize losses of highly volatile and labile compounds. Thirty-four compounds were identified. They include sulfur compounds, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and one alcohol. The principal constituent is methyl 3-methylbut-3-enyl sulfide, which usually comprised 50% or more of the total volatiles observed. The concentration of many constituents varied widely. This appeared to be quasiperiodic for five of the constituents, with a period of a few weeks, and with pronounced maxima at the peak of estrus. Apparently these compounds are 3-methyltetrahydrothiophene, methyl 3-methylbutyl sulfide, octanal, dodecanal, and bis(3-methylbut-3-enyl) disulfide. One or more of these compounds may have pheromonal activity in coyote relationships.
The volatile compounds from female beagle urine, across the state of estrus, were examined by headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were methyl propyl sulfide, methyl butyl sulfide, and acetone. Nine minor constituents, including trimethyl amine and five disulfides, were identified. Two of the unidentified minor constituents may possibly be associated with the state of estrus.
Investigation of the lower‐boiling fraction of orange volatiles showed the following hydrocarbons: limonene, myrcene, alpha‐pinene, alpha‐thujene, camphene, alpha‐ and gamma‐terpinene, alpha‐phellandrene, p‐cymene, and p‐isopropenyltoluene. Four sesquiterpenes were isolated from the higher‐boiling fraction. The major sesquiterpene found has not been related to any known compound. Of those present in less amounts, one has been identified as farnesene, and another as ylangene.
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