Humans and dogs are the two major hosts of Strongyloides stercoralis, an intestinal parasitic nematode. To better understand the phylogenetic relationships among S. stercoralis isolates infecting humans and dogs and to assess the zoonotic potential of this parasite, we analyzed mitochondrial Cox1, nuclear 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and a major sperm protein domain-containing protein genes. Overall, our analyses indicated the presence of two distinct lineages of S. stercoralis (referred to as type A and type B). While type A parasites were isolated both from humans and dogs in different countries, type B parasites were found exclusively in dogs, indicating that the type B has not adapted to infect humans. These epidemiological data, together with the close phylogenetic relationship of S. stercoralis with S. procyonis, a Strongyloides parasite of raccoons, possibly indicates that S. stercoralis originally evolved as a canid parasite, and later spread into humans. The inability to infect humans might be an ancestral character of this species and the type B might be surmised to be an origin population from which human-infecting strains are derived.
A veterinarian in Thailand was diagnosed with COVID-19 after being sneezed on by an infected cat owned by an infected patient. Genetic study supported the hypothesis of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from the owner to the cat, and then from the cat to the veterinarian.
The Indian Ocean chikungunya epidemic re-emerged in Thailand in August 2008. Forty-five adults with laboratory-confirmed chikungunya in Songkhla province, Thailand were clinically assessed and serially bled throughout the acute and convalescent phase of the disease. Patient symptoms, antibody responses, and viral kinetics were evaluated using observational assessments, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serological assays. All subjects experienced joint pain with 42 (93%) involving multiple joints; the interphalangeal most commonly affected in 91% of the subjects. The mean duration of joint pain was 5.8 days, 11 (25%) experiencing discomfort through the duration of the study. Rash was observed in 37 (82%) subjects a mean 3.5 days post onset of symptoms. Patents were positive by PCR for a mean of 5.9 days with sustained peak viral load through Day 5. The IgM antibodies appeared on Day 4 and peaked at Day 7 and IgG antibodies first appeared at Day 5 and rose steadily through Day 24.
Abstract. Leishmaniasis is an emerging disease in Thailand. Herein, we report on two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with leishmaniasis who presented with overlapping manifestations between cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA gene showed that the species was identical to a new species recently described in Thailand. The detection of DNA of this Leishmania species in saliva may have important implications for transmission and epidemiological studies.
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common opportunistic parasitic diseases in patients living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection in HIV-infected patients and to identify associated risk factors in Toxoplasma seropositive patients. This study was conducted at a regional public hospital in Hat Yai, southern Thailand during October 2009 to June 2010. Blood samples were collected from 300 HIV-infected patients. Each subject also answered a socio-demographic and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in HIV-infected patients was 109 (36.3%), of which 83 (76.2%) had past infection and 26 (23.9%) had recently acquired Toxoplasma infection as indicated by their IgG avidity. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that gender difference (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.05–2.72) was the only factor associated with Toxoplasma infection. From the results obtained, these HIV-infected patients could be at high risk of developing clinical evidence of severe toxoplasmosis. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce primary behavioral practices to prevent Toxoplasma infection among HIV-infected patients.
BackgroundLeishmaniasis caused by two new species of Leishmania; L. siamensis and L. martiniquensis have been recently described in Thailand. The disease has mainly been documented in AIDS patients from southern Thailand. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine HIV-Leishmania co-infection in southern Thailand.MethodsOne ml of saliva and 3 ml of EDTA blood were collected from HIV-infected patients for PCR detection of Leishmania DNA, cloning and sequencing. The positive PCR samples were then cultured on Schneider’s insect medium.ResultsThree out of 316 saliva samples collected from HIV-infected patients were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA (0.95 %). Among the positive samples, one patient was observed with disseminated cutaneous lesions and also tested positive via saliva, whole blood and buffy coat in PCR. The second case presenting with nodular lesions also gave a positive saliva test via PCR two months prior to buffy coat. This diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination and a culture of biopsy samples from a nodule. The last case was an asymptomatic Leishmania infection which tested PCR positive only in saliva with a consecutive sample collection conducted for three months.ConclusionsThe prevalence of Leishmania infection in HIV infected patients within this study is 0.95 %. Leishmania DNA was detected in saliva by PCR prior to blood and buffy coat of two HIV infected patients. Early detection of Leishmania DNA in saliva would be beneficial for the follow up of asymptomatic Leishmania infected patients, the early treatment of leishmaniasis and for surveillance survey purpose. However, full evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of this technique with a large cohort of patients is required before deployment.
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