We assessed the effect of different doses of vitamin D supplementation on microcirculation, signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Sixty-seven patients with T2DM and peripheral neuropathy (34 females) were randomized into two treatment groups: Cholecalciferol 5000 IU and 40,000 IU once/week orally for 24 weeks. Severity of neuropathy (NSS, NDS scores, visual analogue scale), cutaneous microcirculation (MC) parameters and inflammatory markers (ILs, CRP, TNFα) were assessed before and after treatment. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was detected in 78% of the 62 completed subjects. Following treatment with cholecalciferol 40,000 IU/week, a significant decrease in neuropathy severity (NSS, p = 0.001; NDS, p = 0.001; VAS, p = 0.001) and improvement of cutaneous MC were observed (p < 0.05). Also, we found a decrease in IL-6 level (2.5 pg/mL vs. 0.6 pg/mL, p < 0.001) and an increase in IL-10 level (2.5 pg/mL vs. 4.5 pg/mL, p < 0.001) after 24 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in this group. No changes were detected in the cholecalciferol 5000 IU/week group. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation of 40,000 IU/week for 24 weeks was associated with improvement in clinical manifestation, cutaneous microcirculation and inflammatory markers in patients with T2DM and peripheral neuropathy.
It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(OH)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p<0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p<0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p<0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex group of disorders, characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. In human blood, hyperglycemia ultimately results in the enhancement of glycation -a posttranslational modification formed by the interaction of protein amino groups with glucose. The resulting fructosamines (Amadori compounds) readily undergo further degradation resulting in advanced glycation end products (AGEs), known to be pro-inflammatory in humans. These compounds are highly heterogeneous and characteristic of advanced stages of the disease, whereas fructosamines are recognized markers of early diabetes stages (HbA 1C , glycated albumin). Recently, individual plasma protein glycation sites were proposed as promising T2DM biomarkers sensitive to short-term fluctuations of plasma glucose. However, corresponding absolute quantification strategies, applicable in regular clinical practice, are still not established. Therefore, here we propose a new analytical approach aiming at reproducible and precise quantification of multiple glycated peptides in human plasma tryptic digests. Thereby, the standard peptides comprised a 13 C, 15 N-labeled lysyl residue, a dabsyl moiety for determination of standard amounts, and a cleavable linker. Known amounts of these peptides were spiked to plasma samples prior to tryptic digestion, quantification relying on stable isotope dilution. The method was demonstrated to be applicable for quantification of individual glycated sites in T2DM patients and non-diabetic controls.
Objective. To assess prevalence of metabolically healthy individuals among patients with abdominal obesity (AO) and to determine phenotype and potential genetic traits associated with a benign metabolic status. Methods. 503 AO patients without cardiovascular diseases were examined. Waist circumference (WC), BMI, blood pressure, plasma glucose and serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, and adiponectin (AN) and leptin (LEP) concentrations in serum were measured. Polymorphisms A19G and Q223R of the LEP and LEP receptor gene, and G276T and T45G of the AN gene were investigated. Results. 91.3% of patients were metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO), and 8.7% metabolically healthy obese (MHO). MHO patients were younger, and had lesser BMI and WC, while duration of obesity, frequency, and duration of physical training were greater than MUO patients (p < 0.05). In MHO and MUO patients distribution of the G19G, G19A, and A19A genotypes of the LEP gene and G276G, G276T, and T276T genotypes of AN gene did not differ. The Т45Т genotype was associated with increase of metabolic disorders' risk for patients with АО (OR = 2.331; 95% CI = 1.121 ÷ 5.132). Conclusions. Prevalence of MHO individuals among patients with AO is low. Benign metabolic status was associated with younger age, lower waist circumference, and higher physical activity, shorter duration of obesity, and G45G adiponectin genotype carriage.
Introduction: Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency contributes to the development of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms had been described to play a role in these conditions since vitamin D receptors were found in many tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and VDR gene polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome (MS) parameters in Russian middle-aged women.Materials and Methods: A total of 697 women aged between 30 to 55 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and four VDR gene polymorphisms rs1544410 (BsmI), rs7975232 (ApaI), rs731236 (TaqI), and rs2228570 (FokI) were measured. We applied the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria to identify subjects with MS.Results: 9.3% of subjects had normal vitamin D level, while 90.7% were insufficient or deficient. Abdominal obesity (AO) was seen in 75.5%, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or T2DM was observed in 33.3%, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in 32.2% and hypertriglyceridemia in 23.4%. Serum 25(OH)D level in women with or without MS did not differ (48.6 ± 1.8 and 51.1 ± 1.5 nmol/l, p > 0.05). Subjects with vitamin D deficiency showed an increased risk of AO [CI 95% 2.23; 1.15–4.30] and low HDL-C [CI95% 2.60; 1.04–6.49] compared to subjects with normal 25(OH)D level. IGT and T2DM risk was increased only when 25(OH)D concentration was less than 39.0 nmol/l [CI 95% 7.17; 2.99–17.7], but risk of MS did not differ in normal vitamin D status subjects and insufficient/deficient ones (p > 0.05). T allele carriers (A) of rs7975232 had higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the GG (aa) genotypes. Similarly, GG (BB) genotype carriers of rs1544410 had higher triglyceride levels than subjects with A (b) allele carriers. However VDR gene polymorphisms did not seem to be associated with an increased risk of MS.Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency, rs7975232, and rs1544410 VDR gene variants are associated with MS parameters in Russian middle-aged women.
Vitamin D3 has many important health benefits. Unfortunately, these benefits are not widely known among health care personnel and the general public. As a result, most of the world’s population has serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations far below optimal values. This narrative review examines the evidence for the major causes of death including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and COVID-19 with regard to sub-optimal 25(OH)D concentrations. Evidence for the beneficial effects comes from a variety of approaches including ecological and observational studies, studies of mechanisms, and Mendelian randomization studies. Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are generally considered the strongest form of evidence for pharmaceutical drugs, the study designs and the conduct of RCTs performed for vitamin D have mostly been flawed for the following reasons: they have been based on vitamin D dose rather than on baseline and achieved 25(OH)D concentrations; they have involved participants with 25(OH)D concentrations above the population mean; they have given low vitamin D doses; and they have permitted other sources of vitamin D. Thus, the strongest evidence generally comes from the other types of studies. The general finding is that optimal 25(OH)D concentrations to support health and wellbeing are above 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate, whereas the thresholds for several other outcomes appear to range up to 40 or 50 ng/mL. The most efficient way to achieve these concentrations is through vitamin D supplementation. Although additional studies are warranted, raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations to optimal concentrations will result in a significant reduction in preventable illness and death.
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