The goal of this study was to uncover the influence of professional activity, migration, and gender on dynamics of subjective age and ageing biomarkers. We examined the representatives of investigative types of professions (ITP), 30–75 years old in Russia, (101/62 women), and Russian migrants to the European Union, (101/56 women). ITPs appeared to be ageing slower than statistical standards; men age faster than women; the pre-retirement group (51–65 years old) showed acceleration of relative biological ageing in the Russian sample (women +4.5 years, men +10.7 years) against the EU sample, suggesting a boost of pre-retirement stress in Russia; subjectively, Russian people (51–65 years old) feel close to their chronological age, while EU people perceive themselves far below their calendar age (men—lower by 20.4, women—lower by 10.9 years). The subjective ageing depends on the country of residence, while biological ageing depends on occupation, gender, and negative expectations of retirement.
According to the World Health Organization, the population of over 60 will double in the next 30 years in the developed countries, which will enforce a further raise of the retirement age and increase the burden on the healthcare system. Therefore, there is an acute issue of maintaining health and prolonging active working longevity, as well as implementation of early monitoring and prevention of premature aging and age-related disorders to avoid early disability. Traditional indicators of biological age are not always informative and often require extensive and expensive analysis. The study of blood factors is a simple and easily accessible way to assess individual health and supplement the traditional indicators of a person’s biological age with new objective criteria. With age, the processes of growth and development, tissue regeneration and repair decline; they are gradually replaced by enhanced catabolism, inflammatory cell activity, and insulin resistance. The number of senescent cells supporting the inflammatory loop rises; cellular clearance by autophagy and mitophagy slows down, resulting in mitochondrial and cellular damage and dysfunction. Monitoring of circulated blood factors not only reflects these processes, but also allows suggesting medical intervention to prevent or decelerate the development of age-related diseases. We review the age-related blood factors discussed in recent publications, as well as approaches to slowing aging for healthy and active longevity.
In an epidemic, it is important to have methods for reliable and rapid assessment of risk groups for severe forms of the disease for their priority vaccination and for the application of preventive lockdown measures. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for severe forms of COVID-19 in adults using indicators of biological and subjective aging. Longitudinal studies evaluated the severity of the disease and the number of cases. Respondents (447) were divided into “working group” and “risk group” (retirees with chronic diseases). During the lockdown period (in mid-2020), accelerated aging was observed in the group of workers (by 3.9–8 years for men and an increase at the tendency level for women). However, the respondents began to feel subjectively younger (by 3.3–7.2 years). In the risk group, there were no deviations from the expected biopsychological aging. The number of cases at the end of 2020 was 31% in workers and 0% in the risk group. Reasonably, the risk group followed the quarantine rules more strictly by 1.5 times. In working men, indicators of relative biological and relative subjective aging (measured in both 2019 and mid-2020) significantly influenced the incidence at the end of 2020. In women, only the indicators obtained in mid-2020 had a significant impact. The relative biological aging of an individual tested in the middle of 2020 had a direct impact on the risk of infection (p < 0.05) and on the probability of death (p < 0.0001). On the contrary, an increase in the relative subjective (psychological) aging index reduced the risk of infection (at the tendency level, p = 0.06) and the risk of death (p < 0.0001). Both the risk of infection and the risk of death increased with calendar age at the tendency level. Conclusions: Indicators of individual relative biological and subjective aging affect the probability of getting COVID-19 and its severity. The combination of high indicators of biological aging and underestimated indicators of subjective aging is associated with increased chances of developing severe forms of the disease.
The article introduces data from the study of the severity of social anxiety caused by the expectation of retirement and subsequent retirement; highlights signs of retirement stress: acceleration of biological aging, the discrepancy of psychological and biological age. It also regards individual-personal factors of biopsychological aging. The article presents the results of an empirical study of the biopsychological age of people – Russians by origin – pursuing intel-lectual professions and living in the European Union and in Russia. All the participants were continuing their research activity and were aged from 32 to 70 years, both living in Russia (n=101, women, 62), and having migrated to the European Union countries (n=101, women 56). Methods of assessing biological age with regard on health indicators, subjective psychological age, as well as the questionnaire of life path were applied. The results showed that in Russian sample the signs of retirement stress are more pronounced: the subjects have an acceleration of biological aging at the age of 51–65 years. The personal strategies for preventing retirement stress and maintaining relative juvenility, typical for the intellectual occupation professionals, were singled out: for men — democratic working conditions, positive attitude, collaborative non-ambitious non-aggressive behaviour; and for women — wellbeing, respectful partnership in the couple, friendly working conditions; multiple changes of place of residence. However, the difference in relative juvenility strategy for residents in Russian and EU was also observed.
The aim of the research is to study how a person's belonging to a certain type of personality (phenotypic, professional, emotional, communicative) influences the rate of his individual aging. Method: we used the Russian frailty index according to Dr. Voitenko, which includes subjective and objective biomarkers of aging: duration of static balancing, blood pressure indicators, body weight, subjective assessment of diseases. Data processing method - one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Empirical base: 987 people (including 575 women) aged 35-70 years, collected from different regions of Russia on a territorial basis. Results: in the professional sphere, the lowest frailty index was found in representatives of the Artistic type and Investigative type of professions, and in terms of the duration of static balancing, the best result was in the Enterprising type. In terms of phenotypic characteristics, representatives of the asthenic and athletic body types had a lower frailty index, and in terms of functional asymmetry - in ambidexters and retrained left-handers. Among the emotional types, the lower frailty index was observed in persons with a predominance of communicative emotionality and those who preferred the style of cooperation when interacting with other people. Conclusions: lifestyle, attitude to the world and other people, as well as phenotypic characteristics of a person affect his biological age and the intensity of his biomarkers of aging.
The challenges of modern civilization resulted in the premature biological and psychological aging of professionals of working age. This phenomenon raises both medical and psychological problems associated with personality factors that affect psychobiological maturity and the rate of aging. The influence of religiosity and spirituality on biopsychological age remains the least studied area of psychology. Progress in this area will help to identify the components of religiosity—predictors of the aging rate of professionals. The sample included 295 people (148 women) aged 24 to 54 years (average age 31.7 years) and consisted of Christians (67.12%), Muslims (5.76%), Buddhists, deists, Shintoists, etc., (7.79%) and atheists (17.29%). The average work experience was 9 years. Using correlation analysis and methods of multivariate linear regression and t-test for independent samples, we found that the religiosity of professionals increases with natural aging and deterioration of their physical condition and does not depend on gender. Religiosity to a greater extent affects psychological age, the indicator of the psychobiological maturity of a professional and, to a lesser extent, biological age. Most of the indicators of religiosity are inherent in a person who is more mature in psychobiological terms. The biological age of professionals increases due to asthenic experiences, while gaining faith in God, unusual religious experiences and the existential meaning of life can reduce it. An increase in the spirituality of professionals is associated with a slowdown in the rate of biological aging.
In this study we examined 100 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins to determine if lifestyle differences between control and experimental twins affected lifespan and health. We used the twin database of the Russian Humanitarian Scientific Foundation. The dependent variables were the difference in lifespan and the number of socially significant diseases between control and experimental twins. The independent variables were the differences within different psychosocial factors (education, family, children, career, prosocial behavior, religiousness, residence, relocations) between control and experimental twins. Using the ANOVA test, we obtained that career (F=11.12, p=0.000), education (F=3.272, p=0.042), living in a large city (F=6.674, p=0.008), having family (F=3.926, p=0.023) and relocations (F=3.757, p=0.046) increased lifespan. For women, one of the most significant positive factors that increased lifespan was education (F=5.992, p=0.005). For men, relocation (F=7.835, p=0.027) was one of the most significant factors that increased lifespan. Having family significantly reduced the number of socially significant diseases (F=3.477, p=0.035). Although this study represents statistically significant data showing that distinct lifestyles have different effects on lifespan and health, future studies with a database of a larger amount of MZ twin pairs are needed to confirm this data.
The influence of quarantine on the indicators of biopsychological age is being investigated, data from studies in different countries are presented. Stress factors are distinguished: the disease itself, post-traumatic stress, quarantine factors (social isolation, malnutrition, decreased physical activity, anxiety). The results of a longitudinal study are presented: 1st measurement – 2019, 2nd measurement -2020 (after six months of quarantine). 394 people aged 35-70 years were examined: adults – 158 (114 women), working pensioners – 28 (19 women), non-working pensioners with chronic diseases – 208 (151 women). Methods for assessing biological age by indicators of health, subjective psychological age, and expected retirement age were used. It is shown that in Russia: 1) the effect of quarantine on the biopsychological age is ambivalent, 2) the psychological age of working individuals has changed, they began to feel younger (by 3.3–7.2 years), the expected retirement age has not changed (remained below the established ); 3) indicators of somatic health did not change – (body weight in women, self-esteem of health), others improved (blood pressure), 4) characteristics of physical development worsened: the duration of static balancing decreased (by 13–37%), the duration of breath holding decreased by inhalation, 5) in working individuals the biological age has increased, and the biological aging index has increased, in women – at the level of a trend, in men – reliably (by 3.9–8 years 6) in non-working pensioners-chronicles there was no increase in the rate of biological aging.
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