Biofabrication is an evolving research field that has recently received significant attention. In particular, the adoption of Biofabrication concepts within the field of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine has grown tremendously, and has been accompanied by a growing inconsistency in terminology. This article aims at clarifying the position of Biofabrication as a research field with a special focus on its relation to and application for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Within this context, we propose a refined working definition of Biofabrication, including Bioprinting and Bioassembly as complementary strategies within Biofabrication.
Biofabrication holds the potential to generate constructs that more closely recapitulate the complexity and heterogeneity of tissues and organs than do currently available regenerative medicine therapies. Such constructs can be applied for tissue regeneration or as in vitro 3D models. Biofabrication is maturing and growing, and scientists with different backgrounds are joining this field, underscoring the need for unity regarding the use of terminology. We therefore believe that there is a compelling need to clarify the relationship between the different concepts, technologies, and descriptions of biofabrication that are often used interchangeably or inconsistently in the current literature. Our objective is to provide a guide to the terminology for different technologies in the field which may serve as a reference for the biofabrication community.
Glioma is still difficult to treat because of its high malignancy, high recurrence rate, and high resistance to anticancer drugs. An alternative method for research of gliomagenesis and drug resistance is to use in vitro tumor model that closely mimics the in vivo tumor microenvironment. In this study, we established a 3D bioprinted glioma stem cell model, using modified porous gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix. Glioma stem cells achieved a survival rate of 86.92%, and proliferated with high cellular activity immediately following bioprinting. During the in vitro culture period, the printed glioma stem cells not only maintained their inherent characteristics of cancer stem cells (Nestin), but also showed differentiation potential (glial fibrillary acidic protein and β-tubulin III). In order to verify the vascularization potential of glioma stem cells, tumor angiogenesis biomarker, vascular endothelial growth factor was detected by immunohistochemistry, and its expression increased from week one to three during the culture period. Drug-sensitivity results showed that 3D printed tumor model was more resistant to temozolomide than 2D monolayer model at TMZ concentrations of 400-1600 μg ml. In summary, 3D bioprinted glioma model provides a novel alternative tool for studying gliomagenesis, glioma stem cell biology, drug resistance, and anticancer drug susceptibility in vitro.
We report to fabricate functional three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs by using an inkjet based bio-prototyping method. With the use of the modified inkjet printers, contractile cardiac hybrids that exhibit the forms of the 3D rectangular sheet and even the “half heart” (with two connected ventricles) have been fabricated by arranging alternate layers of biocompatible alginate hydrogels and mammalian cardiac cells according to pre-designed 3D patterns. In this study, primary feline adult and H1 cardiomyocytes were used as model cardiac cells. Alginate hydrogels with controlled micro-shell structures were built by spraying cross-linkers in micro drops onto un-gelled alginic acid. The cells remained viable in constructs as thick as 1 cm due to the programmed porosity. Microscopic and macroscopic contractile functions of these cardiomyocytes constructs were observed in vitro. These results suggest that the inkjet bio-prototyping method could be used for hierarchical design of functional cardiac pseudo tissues, balanced with porosity for mass transport and structural support.
BackgroundInfantile hemangioma (IH) is a benign vascular neoplasm that arises from the abnormal proliferation of endothelial cells and enhanced angiogenesis. Recently, propranolol has been found to be effective in the management of IH, suggesting that β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IH.ResultsIn the present study, we investigated the β-adrenergic signaling that is associated with hemangioma-derived endothelial cell (HemEC) proliferation. The results showed that both β1- and β2-ARs were expressed in HemECs. Stimulation of the β-ARs by isoprenaline induced cell proliferation and elevation of second messenger cAMP levels. The proliferation-promoting action of isoprenaline was abolished by a β1-selective antagonist and was more effectively abolished by a β2-selective antagonist; the mechanism for the action of the antagonists was a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest which was associated with decreased cyclin D1, CDK-4, CDK-6 and phospho-Rb expression. Pre-treatment of the cells with VEGFR-2 or ERK inhibitors also prevented the isoprenaline-mediated proliferation of cells. In agreement with the involvement of β-ARs and VEGFR-2 in the HemEC response, β-AR antagonists and the VEGFR-2 inhibitor significantly attenuated isoprenaline-induced ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, treating the cells with isoprenaline markedly increased VEGF-A expression and VEGFR-2 activity in a β2-AR-dependent manner.ConclusionsWe have demonstrated that the activation of the β-ARs in the ERK pathway may be important mechanisms in promoting HemEC growth. Furthermore, stimulation of the β-AR may transactivate VEGFR-2 signaling and further increase HemEC proliferation.
Necroptosis is a form of regulated necrosis that is implicated in various human diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Necroptosis requires the translocation of the pseudokinase MLKL from the cytosol to the plasma membrane after its phosphorylation by the kinase RIPK3. Using protein cross-linking followed by affinity purification, we detected the lipid raft–associated proteins flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 and the ESCRT-associated proteins ALIX and syntenin-1 in membrane-localized MLKL immunoprecipitates. Phosphorylated MLKL was removed from membranes through either flotillin-mediated endocytosis followed by lysosomal degradation or ALIX–syntenin-1–mediated exocytosis. Thus, cells undergoing necroptosis need to overcome these independent suppressive mechanisms before plasma membrane disruption can occur.
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