Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is likelier to develop following a first pregnancy and delivery. Although retrospective epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk from both pregnancy and vaginal delivery, few cohort studies have estimated the long-term risk of SUI. This longitudinal cohort study examined the influence of SUI, beginning in a first pregnancy or puerperal period, on the risk of SUI symptoms 12 years later in 241 primiparous women entered consecutively into the trial in 1989 when seen for their first delivery. The 12-year incidence of SUI was based on 146 women lacking SUI for at least 3 months after delivery. By 12 years after the first delivery, 201 women had had 1-5 further pregnancies, and 187 had had 1-4 additional deliveries.The prevalence of SUI 12 years after the first delivery was 42%, and about 5% of women had SUI on a daily basis. Nearly 9% of women in the study reported hygienic problems or social discomfort resulting from SUI. The 12-year incidence of SUI was 30%. Any degree of SUI at 12 years was significantly more prevalent in women whose SUI began during the first pregnancy or within 3 months after giving birth, compared to women without SUI for at least the first 3 puerperal months. More than half of women whose SUI began during or after the first pregnancy but remitted by 3 months postpartum had SUI when assessed after 12 years. The risk of SUI 12 years after the first delivery was increased in women with higher body mass indices, but decreased in women who breast fed their infants for 6 months or longer and also in those having cesarean section at the first delivery. None of the women had undergone surgery for SUI. Training of the pelvic floor muscles did not lessen its prevalence.These findings show that, when SUI begins during the first pregnancy and especially the first delivery, the risk of symptoms 12 years later is significantly increased. Women who are obese before their first pregnancy and delivery appear to be especially at risk, whereas cesarean delivery may protect again long-lasting SUI in premenopausal women. GYNECOLOGYVolume 62, Number 5 OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL SURVEY
Stem cells capable of differentiating to multiple lineages may be valuable for therapy. We report the isolation of human and rodent amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells that express embryonic and adult stem cell markers. Undifferentiated AFS cells expand extensively without feeders, double in 36 h and are not tumorigenic. Lines maintained for over 250 population doublings retained long telomeres and a normal karyotype. AFS cells are broadly multipotent. Clonal human lines verified by retroviral marking were induced to differentiate into cell types representing each embryonic germ layer, including cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, neuronal and hepatic lineages. Examples of differentiated cells derived from human AFS cells and displaying specialized functions include neuronal lineage cells secreting the neurotransmitter L-glutamate or expressing G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels, hepatic lineage cells producing urea, and osteogenic lineage cells forming tissue-engineered bone.
Recent advances in organ printing technology for applications relating to medical interventions and organ replacement are described. Organ printing refers to the placement of various cell types into a soft scaffold fabricated according to a computer-aided design template using a single device. Computer aided scaffold topology design has recently gained attention as a viable option to achieve function and mass transport requirements within tissue engineering scaffolds. An exciting advance pioneered in our laboratory is that of simultaneous printing of cells and biomaterials, which allows precise placement of cells and proteins within 3-D hydrogel structures. This advance raises the possibility of spatially controlling not only the scaffold structure, but also the type of tissue that can be grown within the scaffold and the thickness of the tissue as capillaries and vessels could be constructed within the scaffolds. Here we summarize recent advances in printing cells and materials using the same device.
Bioprinting is an emerging technique used to fabricate viable, 3D tissue constructs through the precise deposition of cells and hydrogels in a layer-by-layer fashion. Despite the ability to mimic the native properties of tissue, printed 3D constructs that are composed of naturally-derived biomaterials still lack structural integrity and adequate mechanical properties for use in vivo, thus limiting their development for use in load-bearing tissue engineering applications, such as cartilage. Fabrication of viable constructs using a novel multi-head deposition system provides the ability to combine synthetic polymers, which have higher mechanical strength than natural materials, with the favorable environment for cell growth provided by traditional naturally-derived hydrogels. However, the complexity and high cost associated with constructing the required robotic system hamper the widespread application of this approach. Moreover, the scaffolds fabricated by these robotic systems often lack flexibility, which further restrict their applications. To address these limitations, advanced fabrication techniques are necessary to generate complex constructs with controlled architectures and adequate mechanical properties. In this study, we describe the construction of a hybrid inkjet printing/electrospinning system that can be used to fabricate viable tissues for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Electrospinning of polycaprolactone fibers was alternated with inkjet printing of rabbit elastic chondrocytes suspended in a fibrin-collagen hydrogel in order to fabricate a five-layer tissue construct of 1 mm thickness. The chondrocytes survived within the printed hybrid construct with more than 80% viability one week after printing. In addition, the cells proliferated and maintained their basic biological properties within the printed layered constructs. Furthermore, the fabricated constructs formed cartilage-like tissues both in vitro and in vivo as evidenced by the deposition of type II collagen and glycosaminoglycans. Moreover, the printed hybrid scaffolds demonstrated enhanced mechanical properties compared to printed alginate or fibrin-collagen gels alone. This study demonstrates the feasibility of constructing a hybrid inkjet printing system using off-the-shelf components to produce cartilage constructs with improved biological and mechanical properties.
The early treatment and rapid closure of acute or chronic wounds is essential for normal healing and prevention of hypertrophic scarring. The use of split thickness autografts is often limited by the availability of a suitable area of healthy donor skin to harvest. Cellular and non-cellular biological skin-equivalents are commonly used as an alternative treatment option for these patients, however these treatments usually involve multiple surgical procedures and associated with high costs of production and repeated wound treatment. Here we describe a novel design and a proof-of-concept validation of a mobile skin bioprinting system that provides rapid on-site management of extensive wounds. Integrated imaging technology facilitated the precise delivery of either autologous or allogeneic dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes directly into an injured area, replicating the layered skin structure. Excisional wounds bioprinted with layered autologous dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes in a hydrogel carrier showed rapid wound closure, reduced contraction and accelerated re-epithelialization. These regenerated tissues had a dermal structure and composition similar to healthy skin, with extensive collagen deposition arranged in large, organized fibers, extensive mature vascular formation and proliferating keratinocytes.
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