SUMMARYOut-of-pocket (OOP) payments are the principal means of financing health care throughout much of Asia. We estimate the magnitude and distribution of OOP payments for health care in fourteen countries and territories accounting for 81% of the Asian population. We focus on payments that are catastrophic, in the sense of severely disrupting household living standards, and approximate such payments by those absorbing a large fraction of household resources. Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal and Vietnam rely most heavily on OOP financing and have the highest incidence of catastrophic payments. Sri Lanka, Thailand and Malaysia stand out as low to middle income countries that have constrained both the OOP share of health financing and the catastrophic impact of direct payments. In most low/middle-income countries, the better-off are more likely to spend a large fraction of total household resources on health care. This may reflect the inability of the poorest of the poor to divert resources from other basic needs and possibly the protection of the poor from user charges offered in some countries. But in China, Kyrgyz and Vietnam, where there are no exemptions of the poor from charges, they are as, or even more, likely to incur catastrophic payments.
The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of CPP-ACP and fluorides compared with fluorides monotherapy on patients with early caries lesions. The Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases up to August 2017 were scanned, with no restrictions. Studies satisfied the guideline of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the patients with early caries lesions and data considering the efficacy of fluorides and CPP-ACP versus fluorides alone were selected. There was no language restriction during the literature search process, however, only papers in English or Chinese were included during the selection process. Outcome variables include laser fluorescence, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, lesion area and visual inspection scores. Mean differences were calculated during the data extraction process. Ten studies including 559 patients were selected in the meta-analysis. Fluorides combined with CPP-ACP achieved the same efficacy for early caries lesions on smooth surfaces compared with fluorides monotherapy (mean difference: -13.90, 95% confidence interval: [-39.25, 11.46], P = 0.28), and the combination treatment showed significantly better efficacy than fluorides monotherapy for occlusal early caries lesions (mean difference: -21.02, 95% confidence interval: [-27.94, -14.10], P<0.01). However, further well-designed studies are still needed.
Inequality in health and health care remains a rather challenging issue in China, existing both in rural and urban area, and between rural and urban. This study used nationally representative data to assess inequality in both rural and urban China separately and to identify socioeconomic factors that may contribute to this inequality.
This study used 2008 National Health Services Survey data. Demographic characteristics, income, health status, medical service utilization, and medical expenses were collected. Horizontal inequality analysis was performed using nonlinear regression method.
Positive inequity in outpatient services and inpatient service was evident in both rural and urban area of China. Greater inequity of outpatient service use in urban than that in rural areas was evident (horizontal inequity index [HI] = 0.085 vs 0.029). In contrast, rural areas had greater inequity of inpatient service use compared to urban areas (HI = 0.21 vs 0.16). The decomposition analysis found that the household income made the greatest pro-rich contribution in both rural and urban China. However, chronic diseases and aging were also important contributors to the inequality in rural area.
The inequality in health service in both rural and urban China was mainly attributed to the household income. In addition, chronic disease and aging were associated with inequality in rural population. Those findings provide evidences for policymaker to develop a sustainable social welfare system in China.
Tooth decay is prevalent, and secondary caries causes restoration failures, both of which are related to demineralization. There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic materials with remineralization functions. This article represents the first review on the cutting edge research of poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) in combination with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP). PAMAM was excellent nucleation template, and could absorb calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ions via its functional groups to activate remineralization. NACP composite and adhesive showed acid-neutralization and Ca and P ion release capabilities. PAMAM +NACP together showed synergistic effects and produced triple benefits: excellent nucleation templates, superior acidneutralization, and ions release. Therefore, the PAMAM+NACP strategy possessed much greater remineralization capacity than using PAMAM or NACP alone. PAMAM+NACP achieved dentin remineralization even in an acidic solution without any initial Ca and P ions. Besides, the long-term remineralization capability of PAMAM+NACP was established. After prolonged fluid challenge, the immersed PAMAM with the recharged NACP still induced effective dentin mineral regeneration. Furthermore, the hardness of predemineralized dentin was increased back to that of healthy dentin, indicating a complete remineralization. Therefore, the novel PAMAM+NACP approach is promising to provide long-term therapeutic effects including tooth remineralization, hardness increase, and caries-inhibition capabilities.
Novel Si@double-shelled carbon (Si@DC) yolk-like powders have been fabricated by using the reinvented Si@void@mesoporous silica nanostructures as templates for the first time. The fabrication is quite economical without special equipment and using cheap glucose as the carbon source. In this special architecture, commercial Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside the ultrathin and intact double-shelled carbon with rationally designed void spaces between the cores and shells, which can accommodate the volume fluctuation of Si cores. When tested as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the resulting Si@DC yolk-like powders exhibit outstanding cycling stability and enhanced lithium storage capacity.Silicon is a promising alloy-type anode material for future lithium ion battery (LIBs), because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh g −1 by forming Li 4.4 Si, more than ten times of graphite), relatively low working potential (0.2 V vs. Li/Li + ) and natural abundance.
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