A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder.Objective: To compare the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) plus treatment as usual (TAU) to TAU alone for patients with bipolar disorder over a 12-month follow-up period. Method: Participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder were randomly allocated to either MBCT plus TAU or TAU alone. Primary outcome measures were time to recurrence of a DSM-IV major depressive, hypomanic or manic episode; the Montgomery-Å sberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Secondary outcome measures were number of recurrences, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: Ninety-five participants with bipolar disorder were recruited to the study (MBCT = 48; TAU = 47). Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis found no significant differences between the groups on either time to first recurrence of a mood episode or total number of recurrences over the 12-month period. Furthermore, there were no significant betweengroup differences on the MADRS or YMRS scales. A significant between-group difference was found in STAI -state anxiety scores. There was a significant treatment by time interaction for the DASachievement subscale. Conclusion: While MBCT did not lead to significant reductions in time to depressive or hypo/manic relapse, total number of episodes, or mood symptom severity at 12-month follow-up, there was some evidence for an effect on anxiety symptoms. This finding suggests a potential role of MBCT in reducing anxiety comorbid with bipolar disorder. Significant outcomes
T. Perich• Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) significantly improved state anxiety for those diagnosed with bipolar disorder over a 12-month follow-up period.• Improvements were found in reducing dysfunctional attitudes surrounding ideas of achievement for those allocated to MBCT.
Limitations• The small sample size and high drop-out rate over the 12-month follow-up period.• A shorter follow-up period than other published trials of MBCT.
Current adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder (BD) aim to impact illness course via information sharing/skill development. This focus on clinical outcomes contrasts with the emergent recovery paradigm, which prioritises adaptation to serious mental illness and movement towards personally meaningful goals. The aim of this review is to encourage innovation in the psychological management of BD by considering three recovery-oriented trends in the literature. First, the importance of quality of life as a target of recovery-oriented clinical work is considered. Second, the recent staging approach to BD is described, and we outline implications for psychosocial interventions tailored to stage. Finally, we review evidence suggesting that mindfulness-based psychosocial interventions have potential across early, middle and late stages of BD. It is concluded that the humanistic emphasis of the recovery paradigm provides a timely stimulus for development of a next generation of psychosocial treatments for people with BD.
BackgroundThe primary objective of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to establish the effectiveness of a novel online quality of life (QoL) intervention tailored for people with late stage (≥ 10 episodes) bipolar disorder (BD) compared with psychoeducation. Relative to early stage individuals, this late stage group may not benefit as much from existing psychosocial treatments. The intervention is a guided self-help, mindfulness based intervention (MBI) developed in consultation with consumers, designed specifically for web-based delivery, with email coaching support.Methods/designThis international RCT will involve a comparison of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two 5-week adjunctive online self-management interventions: Mindfulness for Bipolar 2.0 and an active control (Psychoeducation for Bipolar). A total of 300 participants will be recruited primarily via social media channels. Main inclusion criteria are: a diagnosis of BD (confirmed via a phone-administered structured diagnostic interview), no current mood episode, history of 10 or more mood episodes, no current psychotic features or active suicidality, under the care of a medical practitioner. Block randomisation will be used for allocation to the interventions, and participants will retain access to the program for 6 months. Evaluations will be conducted at pre- and post- treatment, and at 3- and 6- months follow-up. The primary outcome measure will be the Brief Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder Scale (Brief QoL.BD), collected immediately post-intervention at 5 weeks (T1). Secondary measures include BD-related symptoms (mania, depression, anxiety, stress), time to first relapse, functioning, sleep quality, social rhythm stability and resource use. Measurements will be collected online and via telephone assessments at baseline (T0), 5 weeks (T1), three months (T2) and six months (T3). Candidate moderators (diagnosis, anxiety or substance comorbidities, demographics and current treatments) will be investigated as will putative therapeutic mechanisms including mindfulness, emotion regulation and self-compassion. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Acceptability and any unwanted events (including adverse treatment reactions) will be documented and explored.DiscussionThis definitive trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a novel QoL focused, mindfulness based, online guided self-help intervention for late stage BD, and investigate its putative mechanisms of therapeutic action.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03197974. Registered 23 June 2017.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12888-018-1805-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Despite a growing number of reports, there is still limited knowledge of the clinical features that precede the onset of bipolar disorder (BD). To explore this, we investigated baseline data from a prospectively evaluated longitudinal cohort of subjects aged 12-30 years to compare: first, lifetime rates of clinical features between a) subjects at increased genetic risk for developing BD ('AR'), b) participants from families without mental illness ('controls'), and c) those with established BD; and, second, prior clinical features that predict the later onset of affective disorders in these same three groups. This is the first study to report such comparisons between these three groups (though certainly not the first to compare AR and control samples). 118 AR participants with a parent or sibling with BD (including 102 with a BD parent), 110 controls, and 44 BD subjects were assessed using semi-structured interviews. AR subjects had significantly increased lifetime risks for depressive, anxiety and behavioural disorders compared to controls. Unlike prior reports, preceding anxiety and behavioural disorders were not found to increase risk for later onset of affective disorders in the AR sample, perhaps due to limited sample size. However, preceding behavioural disorders did predict later onset of affective disorders in the BD sample. The findings that i) AR subjects had higher rates of depressive, anxiety and behavioural disorders compared to controls, and ii) prior behavioural disorders increased the risk to later development of affective disorders in the BD group, suggest the possibility of therapeutic targeting for these disorders in those at high genetic risk for BD.
First, reproductive cycle event-related worsening of mood was associated with a more severe lifetime course of bipolar disorder, and, second, it appears that some women have a greater propensity to mood worsening at each of these reproductive cycle events. If replicated, these findings provide important information for clinicians treating women with reproductive cycle event mood changes and highlight the need for improved therapeutics for such presentations.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.