Cisplatin and other platinum(II) analogs are widely used in clinical practice as anti-cancer drugs for a wide range of tumors. The primary mechanism by which they exert their action is through the formation of adducts with genomic DNA. However, multiple cellular targets by platinum(II) complexes have been described. In particular, the early events occurring at the plasma membrane (PM), i.e., platinum-membrane interactions seem to be involved in the uptake, cytotoxicity and cell-resistance to cisplatin. In fact, PM influences signaling events, and cisplatin-induced changes on membrane organization and fluidity were shown to activate apoptotic pathways. This review critically discusses the sequence of events caused by lipid membrane-platinum interactions, with emphasis on the mechanisms that lead to changes in the biophysical properties of the membranes (e.g., fluidity and permeability), and how these correlate with sensitivity and resistance phenotypes of cells to platinum(II) complexes.
An experimental campaign was developed to evaluate the properties of earth plastering mortars, not only at the level of workability and physic-mechanical performance but also their susceptibility for biological colonization. A ready-mixed earth mortar and several other mortars formulated with a raw clayish earth were produced. The influence of partial replacement of fine sand by a phase change material (PCM) and the addition of low amounts of oat fibres and hydrated air lime were assessed. The experimental campaign shows that the PCM completely changes the mortar workability, with a decrease on wet density. The addition of PCM and fibres decreases the bulk density and, consequently, increases the porosity of the mortars. The presence of PCM, fibres and air lime decreases the thermal conductivity. Earth mortars are susceptible to mould 2 development, and the fibres or PCM seem to intensify their bio-susceptibility. A low addition of air lime increases pH and inhibits fungal growth though decreasing the mechanical properties. Mortars with PCM, fibres and air lime present a higher surface roughness in comparison to other mortars, including the ready-mixed earth mortar with fibres. Surface roughness was found to be an important factor influencing the level of colonization.
As argamassas de terra estão presentes nalguns mercados da construção devido a inúmeras vantagens, nomeadamente económicas e ecológicas. Portugal tem um vasto património de construção com terra, sendo estas argamassas as mais adequadas para a sua reabilitação e conservação. No entanto, embora tenham sido realizados alguns estudos sobre o comportamento deste tipo de argamassas, pouco é conhecido sobre a durabilidade destas quando aplicadas no exterior. O objectivo deste estudo é avaliar a influência da adição de baixas quantidades de cais (aérea ou hidráulica natural) e da lavagem da areia na durabilidade de argamassas à base de terra aplicadas como reboco de paredes exteriores. Os resultados obtidos não evidenciam melhoria das características mecânicas e físicas dos rebocos de argamassa de terra com estas adições e lavagem. Assim, para melhorar o desempenho deste material, nomeadamente face à água no estado liquido, recomenda-se o estudo de outras adições, adjuvantes ou protecções de superfície.
The present text had a purpose of reflect about the connections between postgraduation an nursing research courses in Brazil. The origins used were magazines, with distinction for Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem and Escola Anna Nery-Revista de Enfermagem, annals of conferences, seminaries and research forums, like the oral deposition of the teacher Emerita EEAN/UFRJ, the doctor Vilma de Carvalho. Note, in this analysis, that the courses of post graduation gave effective impulse at scientific production for the nursing, permitting the advance in a critic valuation of the professional practice.
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