The GCOM-C (SHIKISAI) satellite was developed to understand the mechanisms of global climate change. The Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI) onboard GCOM-C is an optical sensor observing wavelengths from 380 nm to 12.0 μm in 19 bands. One of the notable features is that the resolution of the 1.63-, 10.8-, and 12.0-µm bands is 250 m, with an observation frequency of 2-3 days. To investigate the effective use and potential of the 250-m resolution of these SGLI bands in the study of eruptive activities, we analyzed four practical cases. As an example of large-scale effusive activity, we studied the 2018 Kilauea eruption. By analyzing the series of 10.8-μm band images using cumulative thermal anomaly maps, we could observe that the lava effused on the lower East Rift Zone, initially owed down the southern slope to the sea, and then moved eastward. As an example of lava dome growth and generation of associated pyroclastic ows, the activity at Sheveluch between December 2018 and December 2019 was analyzed. The 1.63-and 10.8-µm bands were shown to be suitable for observing growth of the lava dome and occurrence of pyroclastic ows, respectively. We found that the pyroclastic ows occurred during periods of rapid lava dome expansion. For the study of an active crater lake, the activity of Ijen during 2019 was analyzed. The lake temperature was found to rise rapidly in mid-May and reach 38 °C in mid-June. We also analyzed the intermittent activities of small-scale Vulcanian eruptions at Sakurajima in 2019. The 1.63-µm band was useful for detecting activities that are associated with Vulcanian eruptions. Analytical results for these case studies demonstrated that the GCOM-C SGLI images are bene cial for observing various aspects of volcanic activity, and their real-time use may contribute to reducing eruption-related disasters.
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