The gaseous mediator hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is synthesized mainly by cystathionine gammalyase in the heart and plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Here we first overview the state of the art in the literature on the cardioprotective effects of H 2 S in various models of cardiac injury. Subsequently, we present original data showing the beneficial effects of parenteral administration of a donor of H 2 S on myocardial and endothelial function during reperfusion in a canine experimental model of cardiopulmonary bypass. Overview of the literature demonstrates that various formulations of H 2 S exert cardioprotective effects in cultured cells, isolated hearts and various rodent and large animal models of regional or global myocardial ischemia and heart failure. In addition, the production of H 2 S plays a role in myocardial pre-and post-conditioning responses. The pathways implicated in the cardioprotective action of H 2 S are multiple and involve K ATP channels, regulation of mitochondrial respiration, and regulation of cytoprotective genes such as Nrf-2. In the experimental part of the current article, we demonstrate the cardioprotective effects of H 2 S in a canine model of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Anesthetized dogs were subjected hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with 60 minutes of hypothermic cardiac arrest in the presence of either saline (control, n=8), or H 2 S infusion (1 mg/ kg/h for 2 h). Left ventricular hemodynamic variables (via combined pressure-volumeconductance catheter) as well as coronary blood flow, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent vasodilatation to sodium nitroprusside were measured at baseline and after 60 minutes of reperfusion. Ex vivo vascular function and high-energy phosphate contents were also measured. H 2 S led to a significantly better recovery of preload recruitable stroke work (p<0.05) after 60 minutes of reperfusion. Coronary blood flow was also significantly higher in the H 2 S group (p<0.05). While the vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside was similar in both groups, acetylcholine resulted in a significantly higher increase in coronary blood flow in the H 2 S-treated group (p<0.05) both in vivo and ex vivo. Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. NIH Public Access NIH-PA Author ManuscriptNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript high-energy phosphate contents were better preserved in the H 2 S group. Additionally, the cytoprotective effects of H 2 S were confirmed also using in vitro cell culture experiments in H9c2 cardiac m...
Background The sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin has been shown to reduce major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients, with a pronounced decrease in hospitalization for heart failure (HF) especially in those with HF at baseline. These might indicate a potent direct cardioprotective effect, which is currently incompletely understood. We sought to characterize the cardiovascular effects of acute canagliflozin treatment in healthy and infarcted rat hearts. Methods Non-diabetic male rats were subjected to sham operation or coronary artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 120 min reperfusion in vivo. Vehicle or canagliflozin (3 µg/kg bodyweight) was administered as an intravenous bolus 5 min after the onset of ischemia. Rats underwent either infarct size determination with serum troponin-T measurement, or functional assessment using left ventricular (LV) pressure–volume analysis. Protein, mRNA expressions, and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) content of myocardial samples from sham-operated and infarcted rats were investigated. In vitro organ bath experiments with aortic rings from healthy rats were performed to characterize a possible effect of canagliflozin on vascular function. Results Acute treatment with canagliflozin significantly reduced myocardial infarct size compared to vehicle (42.5 ± 2.9% vs. 59.3 ± 4.2%, P = 0.006), as well as serum troponin-T levels. Canagliflozin therapy alleviated LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction following myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI), and preserved LV mechanoenergetics. Western blot analysis revealed an increased phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), which were not disease-specific effects. Canagliflozin elevated the phosphorylation of Akt only in infarcted hearts. Furthermore, canagliflozin reduced the expression of apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio) and that of genes related to myocardial nitro-oxidative stress. In addition, treated hearts showed significantly lower HNE positivity. Organ bath experiments with aortic rings revealed that preincubation with canagliflozin significantly enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in vitro, which might explain the slight LV afterload reducing effect of canagliflozin in healthy rats in vivo. Conclusions Acute intravenous administration of canagliflozin after the onset of ischemia protects against myocardial IRI. The medication enhances endothelium dependent vasodilation independently of antidiabetic action. These findings might further contribute to our understanding of the cardiovascular protective effects of canagliflozin reported in clinical trials.
Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4 High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy. In prediabetic animals, a mild diastolic dysfunction was observed, the number of myocardial lipid droplets increased, and left ventricular mass and wall thickness were elevated; however, no molecular sign of fibrosis or cardiac hypertrophy was shown. In prediabetes, production of reactive oxygen species was elevated in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Expression of mitofusin-2 was increased, while the phosphorylation of phospholamban and expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3, a marker of mitophagy) decreased. However, expression of other markers of cardiac auto- and mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, inflammation, heat shock proteins, Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, mammalian target of rapamycin, or apoptotic pathways were unchanged in prediabetes. This is the first comprehensive analysis of cardiac effects of prediabetes indicating that mild diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy are multifactorial phenomena that are associated with early changes in mitophagy, cardiac lipid accumulation, and elevated oxidative stress and that prediabetes-induced oxidative stress originates from the subsarcolemmal mitochondria.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with characteristic structural and functional changes of the myocardium, termed diabetic cardiomyopathy. As a distinct entity independent of coronary atherosclerosis, diabetic cardiomyopathy is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure. A detailed understanding of diabetic cardiac dysfunction, using relevant animal models, is required for the effective prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. We investigated and compared cardiac performance in rat models of type 1 DM (streptozotocin induced) and type 2 DM (Zucker diabetic fatty rats) using a pressure-volume (P-V) conductance catheter system. Left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function was evaluated in vivo at different preloads, including the slope of the end-systolic P-V relation (ESPVR) and end-diastolic P-V relationship (EDPVR), preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW), maximal slope of the systolic pressure increment (dP/dt(max)), and its relation to end-diastolic volume (dP/dt(max)-EDV) as well as the time constant of LV relaxation and maximal slope of the diastolic pressure decrement. Type 1 DM was associated with decreased LV systolic pressure, dP/dt(max), slope of ESPVR and dP/dt(max)-EDV, PRSW, ejection fraction, and cardiac and stroke work indexes, indicating marked systolic dysfunction. In type 2 DM rats, systolic indexes were altered only to a lower extent and the increase of LV stiffness was more pronounced, as indicated by the higher slopes of EDPVR. Our data suggest that DM is characterized by decreased systolic performance and delayed relaxation (mainly in type 1 DM), accompanied by increased diastolic stiffness of the heart (more remarkably in type 2 DM). Based on the sophisticated method of P-V analysis, different characteristics of type 1 and type 2 diabetic cardiac dysfunction can be demonstrated.
Radovits T, Oláh A, Lux Á, Németh BT, Hidi L, Birtalan E, Kellermayer D, Mátyás C, Szabó G, Merkely B. Rat model of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy: hemodynamic characterization using left ventricular pressure-volume analysis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 305: H124 -H134, 2013. First published May 3, 2013 doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00108.2013.-Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic structural and functional changes of the myocardium, termed athlete's heart. Several research groups investigated exercise training-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in animal models; however, only sporadic data exist about detailed hemodynamics. We aimed to provide functional characterization of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in a rat model using the in vivo method of LV pressure-volume (P-V) analysis. After inducing LV hypertrophy by swim training, we assessed LV morphometry by echocardiography and performed LV P-V analysis using a pressureconductance microcatheter to investigate in vivo cardiac function. Echocardiography showed LV hypertrophy (LV mass index: 2.41 Ϯ 0.09 vs. 2.03 Ϯ 0.08 g/kg, P Ͻ 0.01), which was confirmed by heart weight data and histomorphometry. Invasive hemodynamic measurements showed unaltered heart rate, arterial pressure, and LV enddiastolic volume along with decreased LV end-systolic volume, thus increased stroke volume and ejection fraction (73.7 Ϯ 0.8 vs. 64.1 Ϯ 1.5%, P Ͻ 0.01) in trained versus untrained control rats. The P-V loop-derived sensitive, load-independent contractility indexes, such as slope of end-systolic P-V relationship or preload recruitable stroke work (77.0 Ϯ 6.8 vs. 54.3 Ϯ 4.8 mmHg, P ϭ 0.01) were found to be significantly increased. The observed improvement of ventriculoarterial coupling (0.37 Ϯ 0.02 vs. 0.65 Ϯ 0.08, P Ͻ 0.01), along with increased LV stroke work and mechanical efficiency, reflects improved mechanoenergetics of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Despite the significant hypertrophy, we observed unaltered LV stiffness (slope of end-diastolic P-V relationship: 0.043 Ϯ 0.007 vs. 0.040 Ϯ 0.006 mmHg/l) and improved LV active relaxation (: 10.1 Ϯ 0.6 vs. 11.9 Ϯ 0.2 ms, P Ͻ 0.01). According to our knowledge, this is the first study that provides characterization of functional changes and hemodynamic relations in exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy; pressure-volume analysis; systolic function; diastolic function; cardiac mechanoenergetics ATHLETE'S HEART HAS BEEN DESCRIBED as the complex structural, functional, and electrical cardiac remodeling induced by longterm exercise training (40). Exercise training-induced cardiac hypertrophy is an important physiological adaption, which includes balanced increase of left ventricular (LV) and left atrial diameters, cardiac mass, and LV wall thicknesses effected by myocyte hypertrophy and neoangiogenesis (10,12,25,36,37).Cardiac enlargement in athletes has been reported since the late 1890s (6), and several aspects of athlete's heart have been intensively inv...
function is considered to be precisely measurable only by invasive hemodynamics. We aimed to correlate strain values measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) with sensitive contractility parameters of pressure-volume (P-V) analysis in a rat model of exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy was induced in rats by swim training and was compared with untrained controls. Echocardiography was performed using a 13-MHz linear transducer to obtain LV long-and short-axis recordings for STE analysis (GE EchoPAC). Global longitudinal (GLS) and circumferential strain (GCS) and longitudinal (LSr) and circumferential systolic strain rate (CSr) were measured. LV P-V analysis was performed using a pressure-conductance microcatheter, and load-independent contractility indices [slope of the end-systolic P-V relationship (ESPVR), preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW), and maximal dP/dt-enddiastolic volume relationship (dP/dtmax-EDV)] were calculated. Trained rats had increased LV mass index (trained vs. control; 2.76 Ϯ 0.07 vs. 2.14 Ϯ 0.05 g/kg, P Ͻ 0.001). P-V loop-derived contractility parameters were significantly improved in the trained group (ESPVR: 3.58 Ϯ 0.22 vs. 2.51 Ϯ 0.11 mmHg/ l; PRSW: 131 Ϯ 4 vs. 104 Ϯ 2 mmHg, P Ͻ 0.01). Strain and strain rate parameters were also supernormal in trained rats (GLS: Ϫ18.8 Ϯ 0.3 vs. Ϫ15.8 Ϯ 0.4%; LSr: Ϫ5.0 Ϯ 0.2 vs. Ϫ4.1 Ϯ 0.1 Hz; GCS: Ϫ18.9 Ϯ 0.8 vs. Ϫ14.9 Ϯ 0.6%; CSr: Ϫ4.9 Ϯ 0.2 vs. Ϫ3.8 Ϯ 0.2 Hz, P Ͻ 0.01). ESPVR correlated with GLS (r ϭ Ϫ0.71) and LSr (r ϭ Ϫ0.53) and robustly with GCS (r ϭ Ϫ0.83) and CSr (r ϭ Ϫ0.75, all P Ͻ 0.05). PRSW was strongly related to GLS (r ϭ Ϫ0.64) and LSr (r ϭ Ϫ0.71, both P Ͻ 0.01). STE can be a feasible and useful method for animal experiments. In our rat model, strain and strain rate parameters closely reflected the improvement in intrinsic contractile function induced by exercise training. speckle-tracking echocardiography; pressure-volume analysis; athlete's heart; contractility; strain LONG-TERM EXERCISE TRAINING induces physiological left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, a molecular and cellular growth process of the heart in response to altered loading conditions (6). In contrast to pathological hypertrophy, this adaptation leads to maintained or even enhanced cardiac function (2, 14). Hemodynamic changes of exercise-induced hypertrophy were characterized by our research group in a rat model, focusing also on the improved LV inotropic state (23). Contractility is the intrinsic ability of the myocardium to generate force and to shorten independently of changes in preload or afterload with fixed heart rates. In the past few decades, efforts have been made to transfer the physiological concept of contractility to the intact beating heart (4).Pressure-volume (P-V) analysis recently became the gold standard to investigate in vivo hemodynamics in animal models. During preload reduction maneuvers such as gradual occlusion of vena cava inferior, load-independent indices of myocardial contractility could be obtained (20). Th...
Background-The role of the nitric oxide/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase G pathway in myocardial protection and preconditioning has been the object of intensive investigations. The novel soluble guanylate cyclase activator cinaciguat has been reported to elevate intracellular [cGMP] and activate the nitric oxide/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase G pathway in vivo. We investigated the effects of cinaciguat on myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats. Methods and Results-Rats were treated orally twice a day for 4 days with vehicle or cinaciguat (10 mg/kg). Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously 2 days after the first treatment at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days to produce myocardial infarction. After 17 hours, histopathological observations and left ventricular pressure-volume analysis to assess cardiac function with a Millar microtip pressure-volume conductance catheter were performed, and levels of biochemicals of the heart tissues were measured. Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolated canine coronary arterial rings exposed to peroxynitrite were investigated for vasomotor function, and immunohistochemistry was performed for cGMP and nitrotyrosine. The present results show that cinaciguat treatment improves histopathological lesions, improves cardiac performance, improves impaired cardiac relaxation, reduces oxidative stress, ameliorates intracellular enzyme release, and decreases cyclooxygenase 2, transforming growth factor-␤, and ␤-actin mRNA expression in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats.In vitro exposure of coronary arteries to peroxynitrite resulted in an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, increased nitro-oxidative stress, and reduced intracellular cGMP levels, which were all improved by cinaciguat. A cardioprotective effect of postischemic cinaciguat treatment was shown in a canine model of global ischemia/reperfusion. Conclusion-Pharmacological soluble guanylate cyclase activation could be a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease. (Circulation. 2009;120:677-686.) Key Words: contractility Ⅲ genes Ⅲ myocardial infarction Ⅲ nitric oxide M yocardial infarction (MI) is the rapid development of myocardial necrosis that occurs when a coronary artery is severely blocked so that there is a significant imbalance between the oxygen supply and the demand of the myocardium, causing damage or death of a portion of the myocardium. A better understanding of the processes involved in myocardial injury has stimulated the search for new drugs that could limit the myocardial damage. It has been proposed that the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/ cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase G pathway may play a pivotal role in myocardial protection and preconditioning. In the healthy endothelium, vascular NO binds to the ferrous heme iron (Fe 2ϩ ) and activates a key signal transduction enzyme, sGC, resulting in cGMP generation. This activation promotes...
AimsHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has a great epidemiological burden. The pathophysiological role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling has been intensively investigated in HFpEF. Elevated levels of cGMP have been shown to exert cardioprotective effects in various cardiovascular diseases, including diabetic cardiomyopathy. We investigated the effect of long‐term preventive application of the phosphodiesterase‐5A (PDE5A) inhibitor vardenafil in diabetic cardiomyopathy‐associated HFpEF.Methods and resultsZucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were used as a model of HFpEF and ZDF lean rats served as controls. Animals received vehicle or 10 mg/kg body weight vardenafil per os from weeks 7 to 32 of age. Cardiac function, morphology was assessed by left ventricular (LV) pressure–volume analysis and echocardiography at week 32. Cardiomyocyte force measurements were performed. The key markers of cGMP signalling, nitro‐oxidative stress, apoptosis, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis were examined. The ZDF animals showed diastolic dysfunction (increased LV/cardiomyocyte stiffness, prolonged LV relaxation time), preserved systolic performance, decreased myocardial cGMP level coupled with impaired protein kinase G (PKG) activity, increased nitro‐oxidative stress, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and hypertrophic and fibrotic remodelling of the myocardium. Vardenafil effectively prevented the development of HFpEF by maintaining diastolic function (decreased LV/cardiomyocyte stiffness and LV relaxation time), by restoring cGMP levels and PKG activation, by lowering apoptosis and by alleviating nitro‐oxidative stress, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrotic remodelling.ConclusionsWe report that vardenafil successfully prevented the development of diabetes mellitus‐associated HFpEF. Thus, PDE5A inhibition as a preventive approach might be a promising option in the management of HFpEF patients with diabetes mellitus.
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