There is no proof that the HN cDNA represents a gene, that its origin is nuclear, or that the HN peptide is produced in vivo. The information that the long HN cDNA sequence is virtually identical to mitochondrial rRNA should have been put in the Discussion rather than published as supplementary material. The Discussion should have contained the following:The long cDNA [1,567 bp including a poly(A) tail] containing the HN ORF is Ͼ99% identical (1548͞1552) to positions 1679-3230 of mitochondrial DNA (GenBank accession no. AB055387). Because mitochondrial DNA positions 1667-3224 code for mitochondrial 16S rRNA, and mitochondrial 16S rRNA has a short poly(A) tail during transcription (1), the virtual identity of the long HN cDNA to mitochondrial DNA indicates that HN cDNA is mitochondrial 16S rRNA with a poly(A) tail. This makes it unlikely that the peptide encoded by the ORF in HN cDNA is naturally produced. Further, the 75-bp HN ORF is separated from the 5Ј end of the long HN cDNA by a 950-bp region containing at least seven ORFs, each with a stop codon. This makes it even more unlikely that HN peptide is produced from the long HN cDNA. It should also be noted that mitochondria-like nuclear sequences occur commonly as pseudogenes (2). Finally, the HN peptide lacks the characteristic N-terminal signal sequence of secreted peptides, although we suggest that a signal peptide-like function may be encoded in the primary sequence of HN peptide. For all of these reasons, it is unlikely that the HN ORF leads to production of the predicted peptide in vivo.Nonetheless, it remains possible that HN cDNA represents a nuclear transcribed mRNA and that the HN peptide is a natural product. Long regions of the HN cDNA are Ͼ99% identical to certain registered human mRNAs [1545͞1553 at positions 14-1580 of FLJ22981 fis cDNA (AK026634), 925͞929 at positions 1-929 of FLJ22517 fis cDNA, 914͞919 at positions 1348-2266 of FLJ20341 fis cDNA, and 345͞346 at positions 1-346 of PNAS-32 mRNA]. PNAS-32 mRNA is actually expressed to produce NB4 apoptosis-related protein, showing that this mRNA is transcribed from a nuclear gene. In addition, HN cDNA is highly similar to regions of more than 1,000 bp on human chromosomes [positions 245364-244075 of chromosome 11 draft sequence (92%, 1198͞1290), positions 65752-66775 of chromosome X draft sequence (95%, 974͞1025), and positions 687598-688608 of chromosome 5 draft sequence (93%, 954͞1016)]. Also, the HN ORF has a Kozak-like sequence, although it is not canonical.
Inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in many human diseases including insulin resistance. However, how iNOS causes or exacerbates insulin resistance remains largely unknown. Protein S-nitrosylation is now recognized as a prototype of a redox-dependent, cGMP-independent signaling component that mediates a variety of actions of nitric oxide (NO). Here we describe the mechanism of inactivation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) in NO donor-treated cells and diabetic (db/db) mice. NO donors induced S-nitrosylation and inactivation of Akt/PKB in vitro and in intact cells. The inhibitory effects of NO donor were independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and cGMP. In contrast, the concomitant presence of oxidative stress accelerated S-nitrosylation and inactivation of Akt/PKB. In vitro denitrosylation with reducing agent reactivated recombinant and cellular Akt/PKB from NO donortreated cells. Mutated Akt1/PKB␣ (C224S), in which cysteine 224 was substituted by serine, was resistant to NO donor-induced S-nitrosylation and inactivation, indicating that cysteine 224 is a major S-nitrosylation acceptor site. In addition, S-nitrosylation of Akt/PKB was increased in skeletal muscle of diabetic (db/db) mice compared with wild-type mice. These data suggest that Snitrosylation-mediated inactivation may contribute to the pathogenesis of iNOS-and/or oxidative stress-involved insulin resistance. Nitric oxide (NO)1 is an endogenous cell signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological functions and in the mediation of a variety of pathophysiological processes. NO and NO-related compounds function as both protective and cytotoxic, dependent on the cellular context and the nature of the NO group. The multifaceted actions of the NO group can be classified into two categories: 1) authentic NO-mediated, cGMPdependent, and 2) reactive nitrogen species-mediated, cGMPindependent actions. Nitrosative post-translational modifications, including protein S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration, are involved in the cGMP-independent actions. The cGMP-dependent actions play critical roles in a variety of physiological processes, including NO-mediated vasodilation. In contrast, cGMP-independent, nitrosative protein modifications are postulated to be involved in the pathological responses (1-4).Nitric-oxide synthases (NOSs) consist of three distinct genes, inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS). NO is generated by iNOS to a much greater extent, to over 1,000-fold, compared with that produced by the constitutive NOSs, eNOS and nNOS (2, 5). iNOS and nitrosative stress have been implicated in many human diseases, including insulin resistance (6, 7), atherosclerosis (8), inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders (9). This is largely based on the evidence that iNOS deficiency results in significant amelioration of, or resistance to, these diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which iNOS causes and/or exacerbates these diseases. Furthe...
Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we searched for amyloid precursor protein (APP)-interacting molecules by screening mouse and human brain libraries. In addition to known interacting proteins containing a phosphotyrosine-interaction-domain (PID)-Fe65, Fe65L, Fe65L2, X11, and mDab1, we identified, as a novel APP-interacting molecule, a PID-containing isoform of mouse JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP-1b) and its human homolog IB1, the established scaffold proteins for JNK. The APP amino acids Tyr(682), Asn(684), and Tyr(687) in the G(681)YENPTY(687) region were all essential for APP/JIP-1b interaction, but neither Tyr(653) nor Thr(668) was necessary. APP-interacting ability was specific for this additional isoform containing PID and was shared by both human and mouse homologs. JIP-1b expressed by mammalian cells was efficiently precipitated by the cytoplasmic domain of APP in the extreme Gly(681)-Asn(695) domain-dependent manner. Reciprocally, both full-length wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease mutant APPs were precipitated by PID-containing JIP constructs. Antibodies raised against the N and C termini of JIP-1b coprecipitated JIP-1b and wild-type or mutant APP in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. Moreover, human JNK1beta1 formed a complex with APP in a JIP-1b-dependent manner. Confocal microscopic examination demonstrated that APP and JIP-1b share similar subcellular localization in transfected cells. These data indicate that JIP-1b/IB1 scaffolds APP with JNK, providing a novel insight into the role of the JNK scaffold protein as an interface of APP with intracellular functional molecules.
Eukaryotic proteins are frequently produced in Escherichia coli as insoluble aggregates. This is one of the barriers to studies of macromolecular structure. We have examined the effect of coproduction of the E. coli thioredoxin (Trx) or E. coli chaperones GroESL on the solubility of various foreign proteins. The solubilities of all eight vertebrate proteins examined including transcription factors and kinases were increased dramatically by coproduction of Trx. Overproduction of E. coli chaperones GroESL increased the solubilities of four out of eight proteins examined. Although the tyrosine kinase Lck that was produced as an insoluble form and solubilized by urea treatment had a very low autophosphorylating activity, Lck produced in soluble form by coproduction of Trx had an efficient activity. These results suggest that the proteins produced in soluble form by coproduction of Trx have the native protein conformation. The mechanism by which coproduction of Trx increases the solubility of the foreign proteins is discussed.
The DNA-binding domain of c-Myb consists of three homologous tandem repeats of 52 amino acids. The structure of the third (C-terminal) repeat obtained by NMR analysis has a conformation related to the helix-turn-helix motif. To identify the role of each repeat in the sequence recognition of DNA, we analyzed specific interactions between c-Myb and DNA by measuring binding affinities for systematic mutants of Myb-binding DNA sites and various truncated c-Myb mutants. We found that specific interactions are localized unevenly in the AACTGAC region in the consensus binding site of c-Myb: The first adenine, third cytosine, and fifth guanine are involved in very specific interactions, in which any base substitutions reduce the binding affinity by >500-fold. On the other hand, the interaction at the second adenine is less specific, with the affinity reduction in the range of 6-to 15-fold. The seventh cytosine involves a rather peculiar interaction, in which only guanine substitution abolishes the specific binding. The binding analyses, together with the chemical protection analyses, showed that the c-Myb fragment containing the second and third repeats covers the AACTGAC region from the major groove of DNA in such an orientation that the third repeat covers the core AAC sequence. These results suggest that the third repeat recognizes the core AAC sequence very specifically, whereas the second repeat recognizes the GAC sequence in a more redundant manner. The first (Nterminal) repeat, which covers the major groove of DNA only partially, is not significant in the sequence recognition, but it contributes to increase the stability of the Myb-DNA complex. The presence of an N-terminal acidic region upstream of the first repeat, which is important for the activation of c-myb protooncogene, was found to reduce the binding affinity by interfering with the first repeat in binding to DNA.The protooncogene c-myb codes for the nuclear protein (c-Myb) that binds to DNA in a sequence-specific manner (1, 2). The c-Myb protein is supposed to function as an activator or repressor oftranscription (3-6). The DNA-binding domain of c-Myb consists of three homologous tandem repeats of 52 amino acids [repeat 1 (Ri), repeat 2 (R2), and repeat 3 (R3) from the N terminus] (7-9). Each repeat has three conserved tryptophans spaced 18-19 aa apart (10). Ri can be deleted without significant loss of DNA-binding activity (9, 11). Thus, Rl is thought to be a minor player in sequence recognition. The solution structure of R3 has been obtained by NMR analysis (12). The analysis showed that the conserved tryptophans form a hydrophobic core, as predicted from sequence and mutagenesis analyses (13,14), and that the a-helices fold into a conformation related to the helixturn-helix (HTH) motif. The model of Myb-DNA complexThe publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge payment. This article must therefore be hereby marked "advertisement" in accordance with 18 U.S.C. §1734 solely to indicate this fact.suggests that one of th...
The molecular bases underlying burn-or critical illness-induced insulin resistance still remain unclarified. Muscle protein catabolism is a ubiquitous feature of critical illness. Akt/PKB plays a central role in the metabolic actions of insulin and is a pivotal regulator of hypertrophy and atrophy of skeletal muscle. We therefore examined the effects of burn injury on insulin-stimulated Akt/PKB activation in skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt/PKB was significantly attenuated in burned compared with sham-burned rats. Insulin-stimulated Akt/PKB kinase activity, as judged by immune complex kinase assay and phosphorylation status of the endogenous substrate of Akt/PKB, glycogen synthase kinase-3␤ (GSK-3␤), was significantly impaired in burned rats. Furthermore, insulin consistently failed to increase the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, another downstream effector of Akt/PKB, in rats with burn injury, whereas phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase was increased by insulin in controls. The protein expression of Akt/PKB, GSK-3␤, and p70 S6 kinase was unaltered by burn injury. However, insulin-stimulated activation of ERK, a signaling pathway parallel to Akt/PKB, was not affected by burn injury. These results demonstrate that burn injury impairs insulin-stimulated Akt/PKB activation in skeletal muscle and suggest that attenuated Akt/PKB activation may be involved in deranged metabolism and muscle wasting observed after burn injury.protein kinase B; glycogen synthase kinase-3␤; insulin resistance FUNCTIONAL AND METABOLIC ABERRATIONS associated with critical illness such as burn injury include hypermetabolic response, increased protein catabolism, insulin resistance, and muscle wasting. Muscle wasting in critically ill patients leads to muscle weakness, resulting in hypoventilation, difficulties in weaning off respirators, decreased mobilization, prolonged rehabilitation and hospitalization, and even death (2, 3, 4, 6). Insulin resistance is a well-known phenomenon of critical illness and has long been considered to play a cardinal role in the derangements of metabolism and muscle wasting. Binding of insulin to its receptor results in activation of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase, which in turn phosphorylates the IR substrates (IRSs). Phosphorylation at the tyrosine residues of IRS-1 and IRS-2 transduces signal from IR to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) (1, 4).A Ser/Thr protein kinase, Akt/PKB, is a major downstream effector of the IR-IRS-PI3K pathway. Akt/PKB is activated by phosphorylation of Thr 308 and Ser 473 residues of the kinase (8, 46, 52). The phosphorylation of Akt/PKB is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate, a product of PI3K. Akt/PKB drives a major portion of the PI3K-mediated metabolic actions of insulin. Akt/PKB is required for insulinstimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis (53). Akt/ PKB also promotes protein synthesis via activation of the mTOR-p70 S6 kinase pathway (19). Glycogen synthase kinase-3␤ (GSK-3␤), a negative regulator of glycogen synthase...
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