The present work reports the characterization and comparison of Moringa concanensis seed oil from Tharparkar (a drought hit area), Pakistan. The hexaneextracted oil content of M. concanensis seeds ranged from 37.56 to 40.06% (average 38.82%). Protein, fiber, moisture and ash contents were found to be 30.07, 6.00, 5.88 and 9.00%, respectively. The extracted oil exhibited an iodine value of 67.00; a refractive index (40°C) of 1.4648; its density (24°C) was 0.8660 mg mL -1 ; the saponification value (mg of KOH g -1 of oil) was 179.00; unsaponifiable matter 0.78%; color (1 in. cell) 1.90R + 19.00Y; and acidity (% as oleic acid) 0.34%. Tocopherols (a, c, and d) in the oil accounted for 72.11, 9.26 and 33.87 mg kg -1 , respectively. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 3.17 and 0.65, respectively. The peroxide and p-anisidine values of the oil were found to be 1.75 and 1.84 meq kg -1 , respectively. The induction periods (Rancimat, 20 L h -1 , 120°C) of the crude oil was 10.81 h and reduced to 8.90 h after degumming. The M. concanensis oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 68.00%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acids up to levels of 11.04, 3.58, 3.44 and 7.09%, respectively. The results of the present analytical study, compared with those for other Moringa species and different vegetable oils, showed M. concanensis to be a potentially valuable nonconventional seed crop for high quality oil.
Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes were studied to evaluate their antidiabetic effects on protein glycation and on the diffusion of glucose in vitro in the present study. Zingiber officinale rhizome aqueous extract were examined at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. The antidiabetic effects were found to be dose-dependent. Antidiabetic potential of Zingiber officinale was mainly through inhibition of the glucose diffusion and to a limited extent by reducing the glycation. However, further studies are needed to determine in vitro effects of therapeutic potential by restraining postprandial glucose absorptions and plasma protein glycations in diabetic subjects.Uniterms: Zingiber officinale/pharmacognosy. Zingiber officinale/antidiabetic effects/in vitro study. Diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia. Proteins/glycation. Glucose/diffusion in vitro.Extratos aquosos de rizomas Zingiber officinale foram estudados para avaliar os seus efeitos antidiabéticos em glicação de proteínas e sobre a difusão de glicose in vitro, no presente estudo. Extratos aquosos de Zingiber officinale foram examinados nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40 g extrato de planta/L. Os efeitos antidiabéticos observados eram dependentes da dose. O potencial antidiabético de Zingiber officinale se verificou, principalmente, através da inibição da difusão de glicose e, em menor extensão, através da redução da glicação. Estudos adicionais são necessários para elucidar se efeitos in vitro representam potencial terapêutico, restringindo a absorção de glicose pós-prandial e a glicação de proteínas plasmáticas em indivíduos diabéticos.
Unitermos:Zingiber officinale/farmacognosia. Zingiber officinale/efeitos antidiabéticos/estudo in vitro. Diabetes mellitus. Hiperglicemia. Proteinas/glicação. Glicose/difusão in vitro.
Genetic polymorphism is referred to the discontinuous interspecies genetic variability among individuals having distinct alleles on a particular locus. Genetic polymorphism of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes constitutes individual's susceptibility to drugs, affirmed by having discrete allelic frequencies by the individual, strengthening the concept of precision medicine. To combat with toxic consequences of drugs, the polymorphic genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism must be studied. Up to 70% xenobiotic elimination is believed to be dependent on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), an enzyme encoded by polymorphic UGT1A and UGT2B genes. Both bimodal and trimodal distribution patterns of UGT have been reported in various human populations studied. Genetic polymorphisms of UGT may even lead to truncated and shorter gene with grossly diminished enzymatic activity. The extent of phenotypic alteration inflicted by genetic polymorphisms depends on its nature and position on gene locus. The different isoforms of UGT superfamily differ from each other regarding substrate specificity and selectivity. The incidence of genetic polymorphisms and associated altered gene functions results in inter-individual variability in metabolic clearance and elimination of drugs. Hence, the critical interaction between genetics and biotransformation of drugs has recently been the focus of pharmacology research.
Interindividual variability in polymorphic uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) ascribed to genetic diversity is associated with relative glucuronidation level among individuals. The present research was aimed to study the effect of 2 important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs8330 and rs10929303) of UGT1A1 gene on glucuronidation status of acetaminophen in healthy volunteers (n = 109). Among enrolled volunteers, 54.13% were male (n = 59) and 45.87% were female (n = 50). The in vivo activity of UGT1A1 was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-based analysis of glucuronidation status (ie, acetaminophen and acetaminophen glucuronide) in human volunteers after oral intake of a single dose (1000 mg) of acetaminophen. The TaqMan SNP genotyping assay was used for UGT1A1 genotyping. The wild-type genotype (C/C) was observed the most frequent one for both SNPs (rs8330 and rs10929303) and associated with fast glucuronidator phenotypes. The distribution of variant genotype (G/G) for SNP rs8330 was observed in 5% of male and 8% of the female population; however, for SNP rs10929303, the G/G genotype was found in 8% of both genders. A trimodal distribution (fast, intermediate, and slow) based on phenotypes was observed. Among the male participants, the glucuronidation phenotypes were observed as 7% slow, 37% intermediate, and 56% fast glucuronidators; however, these findings for the females were slightly different as 8%, 32%, and 60% respectively. The k-statistics revealed a compelling evidence for good concordance between phenotype and genotype with a k value of 1.00 for SNP rs8330 and 0.966 for SNP rs10929303 in our population.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Lachii (Alpinia allughas Roscoe) are well known and widely used herbs. Ethanol, acetone, methanol and n-hexane extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Alpinia allughas Roscoe roots were screened for their antioxidant activities in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of their subterranean part. Total phenol (mg gallic acid/g dry matter) and flavonoid contents (catechin equivalents/g dry matter) were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric tests respectively. Radical scavenging activity by DPPH methods was expressed as percent inhibition. Total phenolic contents varied from 10 ± 0.12 to 14 ± 0.03 mg gallic acid/g for Z. officinale and 5.46 ± 0.02 to 12.9 ± 0.06 mg gallic acid/g for A. allughas. Total flavonoids were 5.33 ± 0.75 to 8.34 ± 2.1 mg catechin/g for Zingiber officinale and 1.50 ± 0.447 to 9.92 ± 2.5 mg catechin/g for Alpinia allughas in four solvents. Maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in methanol extracts. The antioxidant activity (percent inhibition) of Zingiber officinale and Alpinia allughas ranged from 26.8 to 68.3 and 14.3 to 58.5 respectively in different solvents. Overall, the findings indicate that the both spices are good sources of phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res. 48(2), 115-118, 2013 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjsir.v48i2.15742
The present study was planned to optimize and validate an expedient reverse-phase high chromatography (RP-HPLC) based protocol for the analysis of deferoxamine (DFO) and ferrioxamine (FO) in urinary execration of patients suffering β-thalassemia major. The optimized RP-HPLC method was found to be linear over the wide range of DFO and FO concentration (1-90 μg/mL) with appreciable recovery rates (79.64-97.30%) of quality controls at improved detection and quantitation limits and acceptable inter and intraday variability. Real-time analysis of DFO and FO in the urine of thalassemic patients (male and female) at different intervals of Desferal®(Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation) injection revealed DFO and FO excretion at significantly (p < 0) different rates. The maximum concentrations of DFO (76.7 ± 3.06 μg/mL) and FO (74.2 ± 3.25 μg/mL) were found in urine samples, collected after 6 h of drug infusion while the minimum levels of DFO (1.10 ± 0.12 μg/mL) and FO (2.97 ± 0.13 μg/mL) were excreted by patients after 24 h. The present paper offers balanced conditions for an expedient, reliable and quick determination of DFO and FO in urine samples.
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