) has been used since ancient times, when a scientific concept about the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human illnesses and alleviation of their sufferings was yet to be developed. It has a strong religious significance as it is mentioned in the religious books of Islam and Christianity. In addition to its historical and religious significance, it is also mentioned in ancient medicine. It is widely used in traditional systems of medicine for a number of diseases including asthma, fever, bronchitis, cough, chest congestion, dizziness, paralysis, chronic headache, back pain and inflammation. The importance of this plant led the scientific community to carry out extensive phytochemical and biological investigations on
. Pharmacological studies on
have confirmed its antidiabetic, antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuro-protective, gastroprotective, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and bronchodilator activity. The present review is an effort to explore the reported chemical composition and pharmacological activity of this plant. It will help as a reference for scientists, researchers, and other health professionals who are working with this plant and who need up to date knowledge about it.
BackgroundEnzyme based remediation of wastewater is emerging as a novel, efficient and environmentally-friendlier approach. However, studies showing detailed mechanisms of enzyme mediated degradation of organic pollutants are not widely published.ResultsThe present report describes a detailed study on the use of Soybean Peroxidase to efficiently degrade Trypan Blue, a diazo dye. In addition to examining various parameters that can affect the dye degradation ability of the enzyme, such as enzyme and H2O2 concentration, reaction pH and temperature, we carried out a detailed mechanistic study of Trypan Blue degradation. HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS studies were carried out to confirm dye degradation and analyze the intermediate metabolites and develop a detailed mechanistic dye degradation pathway.ConclusionWe report that Soybean peroxidase causes Trypan Blue degradation via symmetrical azo bond cleavage and subsequent radical-initiated ring opening of the metabolites. Interestingly, our results also show that no high molecular weight polymers were produced during the peroxidase-H2O2 mediated degradation of the phenolic Trypan Blue.
Epoxidation, hydroxylation, acrylation and urethanation of Linum usitatissimum seed oil and its derivativesSome preliminary studies on epoxidation, hydroxylation, acrylation and urethanation of Linum usitatissimum seed oil (LO) and its derivatives have been carried out. Epoxidation and hydroxylation were performed in situ using H 2 O 2 and acetic acid to develop epoxidized oil (LOE) and epoxy polyol (EP). EP was modified with synthetic monomers, viz. acrylonitrile (AN) and methylmethacrylate (MMA), in the presence of benzoyl peroxide in an inert environment to develop acrylic grafted epoxy polyols (AEPs). EP and AEPs were further treated with an isocyanate, resulting in the formation of plain and acrylic grafted epoxy polyurethanes (EPU and AEPUs). The mechanism of the reaction as well as the structural aspects of LO, LOE, EP, AEPs, EPU and AEPUs were investigated by 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR spectroscopic techniques, which also confirmed the incorporation of the acrylic monomers -AN and MMA -on the EP backbone Spectral analyses further demonstrated that, depending on its structure (substituent), each acrylic monomer follows a different grafting mechanism. Physico-chemical characterization of AEPs and AEPUs was carried out by standard laboratory methods, and thermal analyses were accomplished by TGA and DSC. Physico-mechanical characterization of AEPUs coatings further showed considerable improvement compared to the pristine (EPU) resin, due to the introduction of stiff acrylic moieties. The aforementioned studies as well as the coating characteristics of AEPU confirmed that AN and MMA have been incorporated in the EP backbone. These systems can be safely employed at up to 210-220 7C.
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