SummaryDespite some notable successes, only a fraction of the genetic variation available in wild relatives has been utilized to produce superior wheat varieties. This is as a direct result of the lack of availability of suitable high‐throughput technologies to detect wheat/wild relative introgressions when they occur. Here, we report on the use of a new SNP array to detect wheat/wild relative introgressions in backcross progenies derived from interspecific hexaploid wheat/Ambylopyrum muticum F1 hybrids. The array enabled the detection and characterization of 218 genomewide wheat/Am. muticum introgressions, that is a significant step change in the generation and detection of introgressions compared to previous work in the field. Furthermore, the frequency of introgressions detected was sufficiently high to enable the construction of seven linkage groups of the Am. muticum genome, thus enabling the syntenic relationship between the wild relative and hexaploid wheat to be determined. The importance of the genetic variation from Am. muticum introduced into wheat for the development of superior varieties is discussed.
Summary For future food security, it is important that wheat, one of the most widely consumed crops in the world, can survive the threat of abiotic and biotic stresses. New genetic variation is currently being introduced into wheat through introgressions from its wild relatives. For trait discovery, it is necessary that each introgression is homozygous and hence stable. Breeding programmes rely on efficient genotyping platforms for marker‐assisted selection (MAS). Recently, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)‐based markers have been made available on high‐throughput Axiom® SNP genotyping arrays. However, these arrays are inflexible in their design and sample numbers, making their use unsuitable for long‐term MAS. SNPs can potentially be converted into Kompetitive allele‐specific PCR (KASP™) assays that are comparatively cost‐effective and efficient for low‐density genotyping of introgression lines. However, due to the polyploid nature of wheat, KASP assays for homoeologous SNPs can have difficulty in distinguishing between heterozygous and homozygous hybrid lines in a backcross population. To identify co‐dominant SNPs, that can differentiate between heterozygotes and homozygotes, we PCR‐amplified and sequenced genomic DNA from potential single‐copy regions of the wheat genome and compared them to orthologous copies from different wild relatives. A panel of 620 chromosome‐specific KASP assays have been developed that allow rapid detection of wild relative segments and provide information on their homozygosity and site of introgression in the wheat genome. A set of 90 chromosome‐nonspecific assays was also produced that can be used for genotyping introgression lines. These multipurpose KASP assays represent a powerful tool for wheat breeders worldwide.
The electronic and steric effects of aryl substituents and the influence of hydrogen bonding in Z-isomer stability of phenylazopyrazole derivatives have been investigated. In this regard, 38 substituted phenylazopyrazole derivatives and 6 N-methyl phenylazopyrazoles (with meta substitutions) have been synthesized. Their photoswitching behavior, photostationary states (PSS), and kinetics of thermal reverse isomerization were evaluated experimentally using UV-vis and NMR spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) computations have been performed for more detailed insights. Despite the presence of substantial substituent effects inferred through Taft and Hammett relationships, the concentration dependency in controlling the isomerization rates has also been observed. Kinetics studies at different concentrations, solvent effects, and computations have confirmed the decisive role of hydrogen bonding and solvent-assisted tautomerism in this regard. Through this study, a complex interplay of steric, electronic effects and hydrogen bonding as factors in dictating the stability of Z-isomers in arylazo-1 H-3,5-dimethylpyrazoles has been demonstrated.
Key messageGenome-wide introgressions of Thinopyrum bessarabicum into wheat resulted in 12 recombinant lines. Cytological and molecular techniques allowed mapping of 1150 SNP markers across all seven chromosomes of the J genome.Abstract Thinopyrum bessarabicum (2n = 2x = 14, JJ) is an important source for new genetic variation for wheat improvement due to its salinity tolerance and disease resistance. Its practical utilisation in wheat improvement can be facilitated through development of genome-wide introgressions leading to a variety of different wheat–Th . bessarabicum translocation lines. In this study, we report the generation of 12 such wheat–Th . bessarabicum recombinant lines, through two different crossing strategies, which were characterized using sequential single colour and multi-colour genomic in situ hybridization (sc-GISH and mc-GISH), multi-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) DNA markers. We also detected 13 lines containing different Th. bessarabicum chromosome aberrations through sc-GISH. Through a combination of molecular and cytological analysis of all the 25 lines containing Th. bessarabicum recombinants and chromosome aberrations we were able to physically map 1150 SNP markers onto seven Th. bessarabicum J chromosomes which were divided into 36 segmental blocks. Comparative analysis of the physical map of Th. bessarabicum and the wheat genome showed that synteny between the two species is highly conserved at the macro-level and confirmed that Th. bessarabicum contains the 4/5 translocation also present in the A genome of wheat. These wheat–Th . bessarabicum recombinant lines and SNP markers provide a useful genetic resource for wheat improvement with the latter having a wider impact as a tool for detection of introgressions from other Thinopyrum species containing the J or a closely-related genome such as Thinopyrum intermedium (JrJrJvsJvsStSt) and Thinopyrum elongatum (EeEe), respectively.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s00122-017-3009-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Background and AimsBread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been through a severe genetic bottleneck as a result of its evolution and domestication. It is therefore essential that new sources of genetic variation are generated and utilized. This study aimed to generate genome-wide introgressed segments from Aegilops speltoides. Introgressions generated from this research will be made available for phenotypic analysis.Methods Aegilops speltoides was crossed as the male parent to T. aestivum ‘Paragon’. The interspecific hybrids were then backcrossed to Paragon. Introgressions were detected and characterized using the Affymetrix Axiom Array and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH).Key ResultsRecombination in the gametes of the F1 hybrids was at a level where it was possible to generate a genetic linkage map of Ae. speltoides. This was used to identify 294 wheat/Ae. speltoides introgressions. Introgressions from all seven linkage groups of Ae. speltoides were found, including both large and small segments. Comparative analysis showed that overall macro-synteny is conserved between Ae. speltoides and T. aestivum, but that Ae. speltoides does not contain the 4A/5A/7B translocations present in wheat. Aegilops speltoides has been reported to carry gametocidal genes, i.e. genes that ensure their transmission through the gametes to the next generation. Transmission rates of the seven Ae. speltoides linkage groups introgressed into wheat varied. A 100 % transmission rate of linkage group 2 demonstrates the presence of the gametocidal genes on this chromosome.ConclusionsA high level of recombination occurs between the chromosomes of wheat and Ae. speltoides, leading to the generation of large numbers of introgressions with the potential for exploitation in breeding programmes. Due to the gametocidal genes, all germplasm developed will always contain a segment from Ae. speltoides linkage group 2S, in addition to an introgression from any other linkage group.
Wheat is one of the world’s most important sources of food. However, due to its evolution its genetic base has narrowed, which is severely limiting the ability of breeders to develop new higher yielding varieties that can adapt to the changing environment. In contrast to wheat, its wild relatives provide a vast reservoir of genetic variability for most, if not all, agronomically important traits. Genetic variation has previously been transferred to wheat from one of its wild relatives, Ambylopyrum muticum (previously known as Aegilops mutica). However, before the genetic variation available in this species can be assessed and exploited in breeding and for research, the transmission of the chromosome segments introgressed into wheat must first be stabilized. In this paper we describe the generation of 66 stably inherited homozygous wheat/Am. muticum introgression lines using a doubled haploid procedure. The characterisation and stability of each of these lines was determined via genomic in situ hybridization and SNP analysis. While most of the doubled haploid lines were found to carry only single introgressions, six lines carried two. Three lines carried only complete Am. muticum chromosomes, 43 carried only small or very small introgressions and the remainder carried either only large introgressions or a large plus a small introgression. The strategy that we are employing for the distribution and exploitation of the genetic variation from Am. muticum and a range of other species is discussed.
Background Triticum timopheevii (2n = 4x = 28; A t A t GG), is an important source for new genetic variation for wheat improvement with genes for potential disease resistance and salt tolerance. By generating a range of interspecific hybrid lines, T. timopheevii can contribute to wheat’s narrow gene-pool and be practically utilised in wheat breeding programmes. Previous studies that have generated such introgression lines between wheat and its wild relatives have been unable to use high-throughput methods to detect the presence of wild relative segments in such lines. Results A whole genome introgression approach, exploiting homoeologous recombination in the absence of the Ph1 locus, has resulted in the transfer of different chromosome segments from both the A t and G genomes of T. timopheevii into wheat. These introgressions have been detected and characterised using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers present on a high-throughput Axiom® Genotyping Array. The analysis of these interspecific hybrid lines has resulted in the detection of 276 putative unique introgressions from T. timopheevii , thereby allowing the generation of a genetic map of T. timopheevii containing 1582 SNP markers, spread across 14 linkage groups representing each of the seven chromosomes of the A t and G genomes of T. timopheevii . The genotyping of the hybrid lines was validated through fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Comparative analysis of the genetic map of T. timopheevii and the physical map of the hexaploid wheat genome showed that synteny between the two species is highly conserved at the macro-level and confirmed the presence of inter- and intra-genomic translocations within the A t and G genomes of T. timopheevii that have been previously only detected through cytological techniques. Conclusions In this work, we report a set of SNP markers present on a high-throughput genotyping array, able to detect the presence of T. timopheevii in a hexaploid wheat background making it a potentially valuable tool for marker assisted selection (MAS) in wheat pre-breeding programs. These valuable resources of high-density molecular markers and wheat- T. timopheevii hybrid lines will greatly enhance the work being undertaken for wheat improvement through wild relative introgressions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12870-019-1785-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Key message Cytogenetic analysis and array-based SNP genotyping of wheat– Th. intermedium introgression lines allowed identification of 634 chromosome-specific SNP markers across all twenty-one chromosomes of Th. intermedium (StJ r J vs , 2 n = 6 x = 42). Abstract Thinopyrum intermedium (2 n = 6 x = 42, StJ r J vs ) is one of the most promising reservoirs of useful genes including tolerance to abiotic stresses, perenniality and disease resistance not available in the cultivated bread wheat. The transfer of genetic diversity from wild species to wheat offers valuable responses to the effects of climate change. The new array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker technology provides cheap and easy-to-use molecular markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding programmes. Here, we focus on the generation of a new chromosome-specific SNP marker set that can be used to characterize and identify the Th. intermedium chromosomes or chromosome segments transferred into wheat. A progressive investigation of marker development was conducted using 187 various newly developed wheat– Th. intermedium introgression lines and the Axiom ® Wheat-Relative Genotyping array. We employed molecular cytogenetic techniques to clarify the genome constitution of the Th. intermedium parental lines and validated 634 chromosome-specific SNPs. Our data confirmed the allohexaploid nature of Th. intermedium and demonstrated that the St genome-specific GISH signal and markers are present at the centromeric regions of chromosomes 1J vs , 2J vs , 3J vs and 7J vs . The SNP markers presented here will be introduced into current wheat improvement programmes, offering a significant speed-up in wheat breeding and making it possible to deal with the transfer of the full genetic potential of Th. intermedium into wheat. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s00122-019-03300-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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