In the advanced applications, based on infrared detection systems, the precise detection of small targets has become a tough work today. This becomes even more difficult when the background is highly dense in addition to the nature of small targets. The problem raised above is solved in various ways, including infrared patch image (IPI) based methods which are considered to have the best performance. In addition, the greater shrinkage of singular values in the methods based on IPI leads to the problem of nuclear norm minimization (NNM), which leads to the problem of incorrectly recognizing small targets in a highly complex background. Hence, this paper proposed a new method for infrared small target detection (ISTD) via total variation and partial sum minimization (TV-PSMSV). The proposed TV-PSMVS in this work basically replaces the IPI’s NNM with partial sum minimization (PSM) of singular values and, additionally, the total variance (TV) regularization term is inducted to the background patch image (BPI) to suppress the complex background and enhance the target object of interest. The mathematical solution of the proposed TV-PSMSV approach was performed using alternating direction multiplier (ADMM) to verify the proposed solution. The experimental evaluation using real and synthetic data set was performed, and the result revealed that the proposed TV-PSMSV outperformed existing referenced methods in the terms of background suppression factor (BSF) and the signal to gain ratio (SCRG).
A huge amount of generated data is regularly exploding into the network by the users through smartphones, laptops, tablets, self-configured Internet-of-things (IoT) devices, and machine-to-machine (M2M) communication. In such a situation, satisfying critical quality-of-service (QoS) requirements (e.g., throughput, latency, bandwidth, and reliability) is a large challenge as a vast amount of data travels into the network. Nowadays, strict QoS requirements must be satisfied efficiently in many networked multimedia applications when intelligent multi-homed devices are used. Such devices support the concept of multi-homing. To be precise, they have multiple network interfaces that aim to connect and communicate concurrently with different networking technologies. Therefore, many multipath transport protocols are provided to multi-homed devices, which aim (1) to take advantage of several network paths at the transport layer (Layer-4) and (2) to meet the strict QoS requirements for providing low network latency, higher data rates, and increased reliability. To this end, this survey first presents the challenges/problems for supporting multipath transmission with possible solutions. Then, it reviews recent research efforts related to the concurrent multipath transmission (CMT) protocol and the multipath transmission control protocol (MPTCP). It reviews the latest research efforts by considering (1) how a multipath transport protocol operates (i.e., its functionality); (2) in what type of network; (3) what path characteristics it should consider; and (4) how it addresses various design challenges. Furthermore, it presents some lessons learned and discusses open research issues in multipath transport protocols.
The target detection ability of an infrared small target detection (ISTD) system is advantageous in many applications. The highly varied nature of the background image and small target characteristics make the detection process extremely difficult. To address this issue, this study proposes an infrared patch model system using non-convex (IPNCWNNM) weighted nuclear norm minimization (WNNM) and robust principal component analysis (RPCA). As observed in the most advanced methods of infrared patch images (IPI), the edges, sometimes in a crowded background, can be detected as targets due to the extreme shrinking of singular values (SV). Therefore, a non-convex WNNM and RPCA have been utilized in this paper, where varying weights are assigned to the SV rather than the same weights for all SV in the existing nuclear norm minimization (NNM) of IPI-based methods. The alternate direction method of multiplier (ADMM) is also employed in the mathematical evaluation of the proposed work. The observed evaluations demonstrated that in terms of background suppression and target detection proficiency, the suggested technique performed better than the cited baseline methods.
In the present infrared target detection system, simultaneously achieving both the target detection performance, as well as, computing efficiency is considered as a big task. To, address the above said issue, a non-convex triple tensor factorisation is incorporated into the existing infrared patch tensor model in the proposed work. In the proposed model (triple tensor factorisation-infrared patch tensor), local prior information using linear structure tensor and corner strength is incorporated so that the strong clutters in the background can be easily suppressed and the target can be detected correctly. Finally, the method proposed, was solved by alternating direction method of the multiplier. Large number of experiments were conducted and the results presented in the experiments suggest that the method proposed has shown good performance for background suppression, as well as, for the target detection in the clutter environment, when compared with the other baseline methods. 1 How to cite this article: Rawat SS, Verma SK, Kumar Y. Infrared small target detection based on non-convex triple tensor factorization.
In computer vision, object recognition and image categorization have proven to be difficult challenges. They have, nevertheless, generated responses to a wide range of difficult issues from a variety of fields. Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) have recently been identified as the most widely proposed deep learning (DL) algorithms in the literature. CNNs have unquestionably delivered cutting-edge achievements, particularly in the areas of image classification, speech recognition, and video processing. However, it has been noticed that the CNN-training assignment demands a large amount of data, which is in low supply, especially in the medical industry, and as a result, the training process takes longer. In this paper, we describe an attentionaware CNN architecture for classifying chest X-ray images to diagnose Pneumonia in order to address the aforementioned difficulties. Attention Modules provide attention-aware properties to the Attention Network. The attentionaware features of various modules alter as the layers become deeper. Using a bottom-up top-down feedforward structure, the feedforward and feedback attention processes are integrated into a single feedforward process inside each attention module. In the present work, a deep neural network (DNN) is combined with an attention mechanism to test the prediction of Pneumonia disease using chest X-ray pictures. To produce attention-aware features, the suggested network was built by merging channel and spatial attention modules in DNN architecture. With this network, we worked on a publicly available Kaggle chest X-ray dataset. Extensive testing was carried out to validate the suggested model. In the experimental results, we attained an accuracy of 95.47% and an F-score of 0.92, indicating that the suggested model outperformed against the baseline models.
Background: The existing methods based on infrared patch image (IPI) model for small target detection does suffer from l1 norm sparsity problem where the non-target elements in the background image may sometimes be considered as the target element. Hence using l1 norm may lead to degrade the detection ability of small and dim target in a noisy environment. So a robust method needs to be developed to tackle the above-said problem. Method: In this paper, the Infrared patch model based on non-convex weighted nuclear norm minimization and Robust principal component analysis (IPNCWNNM-RPCA) is presented. Here we improve the existing IPI model by replacing the nuclear norm by weighted nuclear norm, where unlike in nuclear norm minimization we assign different weights to singular values. The proposed method is further solved by the alternating direction method of the multiplier (ADMM). Results: To validate the robustness of the proposed method extensive experiments on the large dataset is performed and the results indicate that the proposed method has responded shown good result against the other state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion: This paper presents a robust method in the name of infrared patch image model based on non-convex weighted nuclear norm minimization which improves the existing IPI based method for infrared dim and small target. The proposed method not only suppress the noise background nicely but also detect the target correctly.
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