We investigate needs, challenges, and opportunities in visualizing time-series sensor data on stress to inform the design of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). We identify seven key challenges: massive volume and variety of data, complexity in identifying stressors, scalability of space, multifaceted relationship between stress and time, a need for representation at multiple granularities, interperson variability, and limited understanding of JITAI design requirements due to its novelty. We propose four new visualizations based on one million minutes of sensor data (n=70). We evaluate our visualizations with stress researchers (n=6) to gain first insights into its usability and usefulness in JITAI design. Our results indicate that spatio-temporal visualizations help identify and explain between-and within-person variability in stress patterns and contextual visualizations enable decisions regarding the timing, content, and modality of intervention. Interestingly, a granular representation is considered informative but noise-prone; an abstract representation is the preferred starting point for designing JITAIs.
Driving is known to be a daily stressor. Measurement of driver’s stress in real-time can enable better stress management by increasing self-awareness. Recent advances in sensing technology has made it feasible to continuously assess driver’s stress in real-time, but it requires equipping the driver with these sensors and/or instrumenting the car. In this paper, we present “GStress”, a model to estimate driver’s stress using only smartphone GPS traces. The GStress model is developed and evaluated from data collected in a mobile health user study where 10 participants wore physiological sensors for 7 days ( for an average of 10.45 hours/day) in their natural environment. Each participant engaged in 10 or more driving episodes, resulting in a total of 37 hours of driving data. We find that major driving events such as stops, turns, and braking increase stress of the driver. We quantify their impact on stress and thus construct our GStress model by training a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) on our data. We evaluate the applicability of GStress in predicting stress from GPS traces, and obtain a correlation of 0.72. By obviating any burden on the driver or the car, we believe, GStress can make driver’s stress assessment ubiquitous.
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