This paper presents results of determination of certain quality parameters and its phenotypic correlation in eggs originated from extensively reared gray variety of Guinea fowl. A total of 150 egg collected by sampling 30 eggs in each of five analyzed laying months were used for egg quality evaluation and statistical analysis by methods of descriptive statistics and simple linear correlation. Average egg weight, shape index and shell thickness was 38.14 g, 76.03% and 0.49 mm, respectively.
This paper presents the values of blood biochemical parameters of Simmental cows (n = 60), divided into five groups (dry cows, early puerperium, late puerperium, the fifth month of lactation, and cows with an extended service period). The ration for lactating cows contained an insufficient amount of dry matter, a third less than the lower limit of their requirements. In all examined groups of cows, a strong protein deficiency and excess calcium was found in the diet. Total protein concentration in all groups of cows were on the upper physiological limit, and the concentrations of bilirubin, carotene, vitamin A and total lipids were within the normal range. Low concentrations of urea in the third, fourth and fifth group of cows (3.1±0.39 mmol/l, 2.9±0.38 mmol/l and 3.3±0.43 mmol/l, respectively) indicate the imbalance of protein and energy in the diet. The presence of an energy deficit is also indicated by the low blood glucose in all groups of cows, especially the second and fifth groups of cows (2.2±0.04 mmol/l and 2.3±0.07 mmol/l, respectively). The unfavorable ratio of calcium and phosphorus in the diet resulted in the narrowing of the calcium:phosporus ratio in blood serum, which is particularly evident in cows with an extended service period (2.1±0.07 mmol/l compared to 1.9± 0.11 mmol/l). Based on these results,we conclude that the tested herd exhibits subclinical health disorders, caused by an inadequate diet and with adverse effects on the productive and reproductive parameters
The aim of this study is to give an overview of the production and management of animal waste in the Republic of Serbia, and to emphasize the importance of this issue and its proper solution. Disposal of animal waste is a significant prophylactic measure, aimed at detecting, preventing, suppressing and eradicating infectious and parasitic diseases in humans and animals. The process of animal waste disposal starts from the manufacturer, who is responsible for ensuring safe storage of waste in a cooling unit, until its final removal in the processing plant. Disposal of animal waste must be done in a safe way otherwise dangerous pathogens can be spread by water, air and soil and can endanger the health of the population. In the European Union, and the Republic of Serbia accordingly, the legislation was introduced regulating the ways of managing animal waste, categorizing hazardous waste and ways to its secure resolving, with member states obliged to respect and apply the methods of safe handling of by-products of animal origin.
SažetakU poslednjih nekoliko dekada, genetski diverzitet domaćih životinja rapidno opada. S tim u vezi, postoji interes međunarodne zajednice za očuvanje genetike domaćih životinja. Model in situ čuvanja genoma je skup i značajno limitiran za praktičnu primenu. Zbog toga se razvija model ex situ (ex vivo) krioprezervacije animalnih genetskih rsursa (banke gena) za regeneraciju pojedinih poipulacija u budućnosti. Iako postoji značajan napredak u krioprezervaciji oocita i embriona pojedinih vrsta domaćih životinja, do danas nije ustanovljena standardna procedura ove tehnologije. Uspešna dugotrajna krioprezervacija oocita i embriona će omogućiti očuvanje genetskog diverziteta i primenu brojnih tehnologija asistirane reprodukcije domaćih životinja. Postoji biološki, ekonomski i moralni imperativ i interes međunarodne zajednice za očuvanje genetike domaćih životinja.Ključne reči: oociti, embrioni, genetski resursi, čuvanje, ex situ. UvodSkoro sve vrste domaćih životinja pokazuju značajno smanjenje genetskog diverziteta,što ima za rezultat trajni gubitak nekih genetskih osobina, važnih za očuvanje vrste, kao i za unuapređenje njihove produktivnosti (Buerkle, 2007). Ovo je, pre svega, posledica: (a) primene intenzivne selekcije na vrlo mali broj produktivnih i reproduktivnih svojstava domaćih životinja u intenzivnom uzgoju, (b) primene savremenih biotehnologija, koje omogućavaju dobijanje velikog broja potomaka od jedne individue i (c) mogućnosti efikasnog transporta životinja, sperme, oocita i ranih embriona širom sveta (Patterson and Silversides, 2003).
10 9 spermatozoa in the same volume (83.3%) or with insemination by doses of 100 mL with a 2 × 10 9 (83.3%) or a 4 × 10 9 sperm count (86.7%). The number of live-born piglets (10.82) was larger following IUI using a 50 mL volume dose with a 2 × 10 9 sperm count as compared with ICI with the same AI dose volume and sperm count (9.85). The results show that the use of reduced AI dosages provides an opportunity for the swine industry to considerably exploit the reproductive potential of genetically superior boars.
The main task in intensive pig production is animal welfare, particularly the preservation of their physiological function, homeostasis and homeorhesis and lactation, where the level of glucose, calcium and phosphorus in blood plays an important role in protecting the physiological status. This research has been carried out on a modern farm, of closed type in Zitoradja, in order to show the level of glucose, calcium and phosphorus in the blood serum of the first farrowing gilts and sows during pregnancy and post partum. In investigation, 30 pregnant gilts took part from insemination to partus. Blood was taken from the jugular vein on the thirtieth day after insemination, ten days before farrowing, one day after farrowing, and seven days after farrowing. The concentration of glucose in the blood serum of gilts with normal lactation was significantly higher ten days before farrowing (4.62 mmol/l) and on the first (4.92 mmol/l) and seventh day after farrowing (4.94 mmol/l) in relation to the concentration of glucose on the thirtieth day prior to farrowing (4.12 mmol/l), but this increase could not be found in gilts with disorders of lactation. The concentration of calcium before of partus (2.16 mmol/l) and post partum (2.55 mmol/l), in sows with normal lactation, showed a significant difference compared to the calcium concentration at the beginning of pregnancy (p <0.05) and in gilts with disturbed lactation. Phosphorus concentration showed no significant difference in gilts with normal and disturbed lactation (2.26 : 2.25 mmol/l).
Summary The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of antibiotic diluent additives on the motility and morphological integrity of diluted fresh boar semen during a six-day storage period. A total of 60 insemination doses, originating from two Landrace boars, were examined and allocated to control (C, n=30, diluted with BTS) and experimental groups (E, n=30, diluted with BTS upon antibiotic addition). The treatment applied exerted positive effects on the preservation of progressive motility, percentage of live sperm and HOS test results (70.24 vs. 66.53%, 71.54 vs. 69.77%, 67.35 vs. 64.17% and 64.10 vs. 54.26%;91.15 vs. 90.02%, 88.38 vs. 85.55%, 81.50 vs. 76.13% and 74.53 vs. 68.72%; and 93.35 vs. 92.40%, 91.04 vs. 88.02 %, 84.67 vs. 78.15% and 77.27 vs. 69.44% HOS+ sperm for the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 6th day of storage, respectively). The results obtained indicate that the treatment applied has a favourable effect on preserving the quality parameters of diluted fresh boar semen during storage, resulting most likely from a reduction of bacterial contamination.
In this study different hormonal protocols were used, in order to determine their effectiveness in ovulation value rated postmortem by the inspection of the ovaries of treated gilts. The total of 48 prepubertal Swedish Landrace gilts were used in the study, aged 150 to 160 days, 30 sexually mature gilts, aged 180 to 210 days, with a pre-established one spontaneous estrus (first pubertal), 30 gilts aged 210 to 240 days, with a determined two spontaneous (first and second pubertal) estrus, and 40 long-term anestric gilts, aged 280 to 290 days. The following hormone protocols were conducted: 400 I.U. eCGone-time; 750 I.U. ECG -one time; 1000 IU eCG-one-time; 1500 IU eCGone-time; 250 ηg PGF2α-one time; 20 mg Altrenogest and the combination of 20 mg Altrenogest and 1,000 I.U. eCG at the end of treatment with altrenogest. An overview of the reproductive organs of slaughtered gilts was carried out in the Laboratory for Reproduction of Domestic Animals at the Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad. It was found that the ovulation value of the treated gilts depends primarily on the dose of ECG and reproductive status of gilts at the moment of initiation of hormone treatment.
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