Disconnection from the natural world may be contributing to our planet's destruction. The authors propose a new construct, Nature Relatedness (NR), and a scale that assesses the affective, cognitive, and experiential aspects of individuals' connection to nature. In Study 1, the authors explored the internal structure of the NR item responses in a sample of 831 participants using factor analysis. They tested the construct validity of NR with respect to an assortment of environmental and personality measures. In Study 2, they employed experience sampling methodology examining if NR people spend more time outdoors, in nature. Across studies, NR correlated with environmental scales, behavior, and frequency of time in nature, supporting the reliability and validity of NR, as well as the contribution of NR (over and above other measures) to environmental concern and behavior. The potential of NR as a useful method for investigating human-nature relationships and the processes underlying environmental concern and behaviors are discussed.
In this article we explore how women and men define success and how their definition of success affects their career progress. Qualitative analysis of data from 40 interviews with successful women and men suggest that gender differences do exist. Women highlight the importance of balance and relationships. Men focus more on material success. Similar numbers of women and men thought that their definitions of success had limited their career progress, but the tradeoffs they reported making were distinctly different. Our results suggest that gender differences in the meaning of success exist even when occupational attainments are similar.
Despite the importance of the early stages of a product's life, very little attention has been paid to empirically testing the activities performed in the front end of new product development. This article presents the results of a survey of 53 individuals from fifteen high technology firms in the integrated circuit board industry. Our study adopts Cooper's (1988) 'predevelopment' model consisting of idea generation, product definition and project evaluation stages, and probes the activities undertaken in each stage. Particular activities were found to play pivotal roles in achieving the objectives of each stage. The results present a clarified view of front end activities that can be used as a starting point for adequately preparing products for development and market success.
Ethnic consumers are an important market segment in both traditionally multicultural countries as well as newer recipients of growing immigration movements. Such consumers may carry with them views toward "old friends and foes" which may influence their attitudes toward the products of countries perceived as friendly or hostile in relation to their original home countries. This study examines together for the first time four place-related constructs, namely, country and people images, product images, affinity, and animosity, and their potential effects on purchase intentions, juxtaposing these measures against views toward countries that may be perceived as friendly or hostile from the perspective of the ethnic consumers' homeland, alongside a neutral "benchmark" country for comparison. The results show that country/people and product images, affinity, and animosity work differently depending on the target country, product and people evaluations are influenced by both affective and cognitive factors, and attitudes vary in their predictive ability on purchase intentions, sometimes in line with earlier findings and sometimes not. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
PurposeThis paper proposes mainly that boards of directors (BOD) are teams that share characteristics with many other kinds of teams. As a consequence, some of the factors that lead to board effectiveness are the same factors that lead to team effectiveness in general. By integrating the organizational behaviour literature on teams with the governance literature, a comprehensive model of BOD performance is proposed.Design/methodology/approachThis conceptual paper proposes a model to assess the performance of a board and situates board performance as one input into firm performance.FindingsThis paper outlines the dynamic interplay between board characteristics, functionality and performance and proposes a comprehensive model, based largely on the group dynamics literature.Research limitations/implicationsSuggests that future research attempt to empirically address some (or all) of the items in the conceptual model. Acknowledges that operationalizing certain variables will prove challenging, but suggests that ethnographic accounts of how these variables (and potentially others) interact may be a valuable first step in more fully understanding board composition, functioning and performance.Practical implicationsIt is argued that by extending traditional passive agency roles, BOD may be able to provide a wider range of contributions to enhance shareholder value.Originality/valueThis interdisciplinary paper integrates the group dynamics literature with the governance literature to propose a comprehensive model of BOD performance.
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