Studies have shown that supplementation with extracts from various sources, including fruits and vegetables reverse the age-related changes in movement and cognition. We hypothesized that these beneficial effects result from the presence of anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds in the fruits and vegetables that contribute to reduced oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death while potentially enhancing neurogenesis. The present study was performed to determine the impact of supplementation with GrandFusion®(GF) to aged Fisher 344 rats for 4 months to determine the impact on attenuation or reversal of the age-related deficits. When the aged rats consumed a diet enriched with the extracts the results showed an improved motor performance, and enhanced cognitive functions. In addition, the rats showed reduced oxidative stress and inflammation, and enhanced neurogenesis, Nrf2 and anti-oxidant expression. The effect of GF extracts on the augmentation of memory and learning is significant and may function through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes, signaling pathways and additional mechanisms to improve the aging process. These studies further support the recommendation of USDA for the consumption of fruits and vegetables to improve healthy aging.
Currently, there are no approved therapeutic drugs for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and new targets and approaches are needed to provide relief from the long-term effects of TBI. Recent studies suggest that nutrition plays a critical role in improving the outcome from TBI in both civilians and military personnel. We have previously shown that GrandFusion® (GF) diets improved recovery from cerebral ischemia and enhanced physical activity and endurance in rodent models. We, therefore, sought to determine the impact of a prophylactic diet enriched in fruits and vegetables on recovery from TBI in the controlled cortical impact rodent model. Results demonstrated that mice fed the diets had improved neuromotor function, reduced lesion volume, increased neuronal density in the hippocampus and reduced inflammation. As previously shown, TBI increases cathepsin B as part of the inflammasome complex resulting in elevated inflammatory markers like interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Consumption of the GF diets attenuated the increase in cathepsin B levels and prevented the increase in the proapoptotic factor Bax following TBI. These data suggest that prior consumption of diets enriched in fruits and vegetables either naturally or through powdered form can provide protection from the detrimental effects of TBI.
The consumption of fruits and vegetables appears to help with maintaining an adequate level of exercise and improves endurance. However, the mechanisms that are involved in this process are not well understood. In the current study, the impact of diets enriched in fruits and vegetables (GrandFusion®) on exercise endurance was examined in a mouse model. GrandFusion (GF) diets increased mitochondrial DNA and enzyme activity, while they also stimulated mitochondrial mRNA synthesis in vivo. GF diets increased both the mRNA expression of factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COXIV) and ATP synthase (ATPsyn). Mice treated with GF diets showed an increase in running endurance, rotarod perseverance and grip strength when compared to controls who were on a regular diet. In addition, GF diets increased the protein expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), PGC-1α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ), which was greater than exercise-related changes. Finally, GF reduced the expression of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p-S6K1) and decreased autophagy. These results demonstrate that GF diets enhance exercise endurance, which is mediated via mitochondrial biogenesis and function.
BackgroundRepetitive mild traumatic brain injuries (rmTBI) are associated with cognitive deficits, inflammation, and stress-related events. We tested the effect of nutrient intake on the impact of rmTBI in an animal model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) to study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this model. We used a between group design rmTBI closed head injuries in mice, compared to a control and nutrient-treated groups.MethodsOur model allows for controlled, repetitive closed head impacts to mice. Briefly, 24-week-old mice were divided into five groups: control, rmTBI, and rmTBI with nutrients (2% of NF-216, NF-316 and NF-416). rmTBI mice received four concussive impacts over 7 days. Mice were treated with NutriFusion diets for 2 months prior to the rmTBI and until euthanasia (6 months). Mice were then subsequently euthanized for macro- and micro-histopathologic analysis for various times up to 6 months after the last TBI received. Animals were examined behaviorally, and brain sections were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for astrocytes, iba-1 for activated microglia, and AT8 for phosphorylated tau protein.ResultsAnimals on nutrient diets showed attenuated behavioral changes. The brains from all mice lacked macroscopic tissue damage at all time points. The rmTBI resulted in a marked neuroinflammatory response, with persistent and widespread astrogliosis and microglial activation, as well as significantly elevated phospho-tau immunoreactivity to 6 months. Mice treated with diets had significantly reduced inflammation and phospho-tau staining.ConclusionsThe neuropathological findings in the rmTBI mice showed histopathological hallmarks of CTE, including increased astrogliosis, microglial activation, and hyperphosphorylated tau protein accumulation, while mice treated with diets had attenuated disease process. These studies demonstrate that consumption of nutrient-rich diets reduced disease progression.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the result of the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide into amyloid fibrils and tau into neurofibrillary tangles. At the present time, there are no possible treatments for the disease. We have recently shown that diets enriched in phytonutrients show protection or limit the extent of damage in a number of neurological disorders. GrandFusion (GF) diets have attenuated the outcomes in animal models of traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In this study, we investigated the effect of GF diets in a mouse model of AD prior to the development of amyloid plaques to show how this treatment paradigm would alter the accumulation of Aβ peptide and related pathologic changes (i.e., inflammation, cathepsin B, and memory impairment). Administration of GF diets (2–4%) over a period of four months in APP/ΔPS1 double-transgenic mice resulted in attenuation in Aβ peptide levels, reduction of amyloid load, and inflammation, increased cathepsin B expression, and improved spatial orientation. Additionally, treatment with GF diets increased nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the brain and tempered the memory impairment in the animal model. These data suggest that GF diets may alter the development and progression of the mechanisms associated with the disease process to effectively modify AD pathogenesis.
Plant-based nutritional supplementation has been shown to attenuate and reduce mortality in the processes of both acute and chronic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, inflammatory diseases, and neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Low-level systemic inflammation is an important contributor to these afflictions and diets enriched in phytochemicals can slow the progression. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on changes in glucose and insulin tolerance, performance enhancement, levels of urinary neopterin and concentrations of neurotransmitters in the striatum in mouse models. Both acute and chronic injections of LPS (2 mg/kg or 0.33 mg/kg/day, respectively) reduced glucose and insulin tolerance and elevated neopterin levels, which are indicative of systemic inflammatory responses. In addition, there were significant decreases in striatal neurotransmitter levels (dopamine and DOPAC), while serotonin (5-HT) levels were essentially unchanged. LPS resulted in impaired execution in the incremental loading test, which was reversed in mice on a supplemental plant-based diet, improving their immune function and maintaining skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity. In conclusion, plant-based nutritional supplementation attenuated the metabolic changes elicited by LPS injections, causing systemic inflammatory activity that contributed to both systemic and neurological alterations.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers