SummaryArticular cartilage repair is still a challenge in orthopaedic surgery. Although many treatment options have been developed in the last decade, true regeneration of hyaline articular cartilage is yet to be accomplished. In vitro experiments are useful for evaluating cell -matrix interactions under controlled parameters. When introducing new treatment options into clinical routine, adequate animal models are capable of closing the gap between in vitro experiments and the clinical use in human beings. We developed an animal model in the Gö ttingen minipig (GMP) to evaluate the healing of osteochondral or full-thickness cartilage defects. The defects were located in the middle third of the medial portion of the patellofemoral joint at both distal femurs. Chondral defects were 6.3 mm, osteochondral defects either 5.4 or 6.3 mm in diameter and 8 or 10 mm deep. In both defects the endogenous repair response showed incomplete repair tissue formation up to 12 months postoperatively. Based on its limited capability for endogenous repair of chondral and osteochondral defects, the GMP is a useful model for critical assessment of new treatment strategies in articular cartilage tissue engineering.
Bone resorption in the proximal femur is commonly seen after total hip arthroplasty (THA). With dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the amount of bone mass (BMD) after implantation of a total hip stem can be precisely determined. However, prospective evaluation of the change of bone mass around the stem is only available for selected stems and short-term follow-up (up to 36 months). We analyzed BMD in patients who had undergone uncemented THA by DXA. Only patients with good clinical outcome (Merle d' Aubigné score > 12) were included to obtain normative data for regular bone response. Two separate studies were performed: a prospective longitudinal study over 84 months with baseline values acquired within the first postoperative week (group A) (n = 26 patients) and a separate cross-sectional study, median follow-up 156 (124-178) months (group B) (n = 35 patients). Regions of interest were defined according to Gruen (ROI 1-7) and as net average ROI (net avg) for the periprosthetic femoral bone. After the initial remodeling process (12 months), BMD was compared to the 84-month (longitudinal) and the 156-month (cross-sectional) follow-up values to determine long-term periprosthetic changes of bone mineral density. The longitudinal study (group A), after the initial bone remodeling, showed no relevant further bone loss for women and men with BMD values 1.19 +/- 0.15 and 1.40 +/- 0.19, respectively, 12 months (women 89.8%, men 93.6%), and 1.19 +/- 0.13 and 1.36 +/- 0.18, respectively, after 84 months (women 90.0%, men 91.3%) (P = 0.98, P = 0.08,) respectively. The distribution of the BMD around the stem changed during the first 12 months. The ROIs around the proximal stem (ROI 1 and 7) showed the lowest absolute values at the 12-month follow-up and BMD in ROI 7 decreased most during the further follow-up until 84 months. The cross-sectional study (group B) showed no significant difference in BMD (net avg) values at a median of 156 months follow-up compared to the 12-month values (group A) (women: P = 0.77, men: P = 0.44). Initial BMD, implant diameter, and body mass index did not influence BMD loss (net avg) in this study, whereas age showed a weak correlation with BMD loss. The results show that after the initial remodeling process, no relevant further bone loss (net avg) occurs up to 84 months postsurgery, and values after a median of 156 months are similar. Normative long-term changes in the periprosthetic bone can be demonstrated in defined ROIs after implantation of a tapered corundum-blasted titanium stem with a good clinical result.
We assessed the effect of social deprivation upon the Oxford knee score (OKS), the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and patient satisfaction after total knee replacement (TKR). An analysis of 966 patients undergoing primary TKR for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) was performed. Social deprivation was assessed using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Those patients that were most deprived underwent surgery at an earlier age (p = 0.018), were more likely to be female (p = 0.046), to endure more comorbidities (p = 0.04) and to suffer worse pain and function according to the OKS (p < 0.001). In addition, deprivation was also associated with poor mental health (p = 0.002), which was assessed using the mental component (MCS) of the SF-12 score. Multivariable analysis was used to identify independent predictors of outcome at one year. Pre-operative OKS, SF-12 MCS, back pain, and four or more comorbidities were independent predictors of improvement in the OKS (all p < 0.001). Pre-operative OKS and improvement in the OKS were independent predictors of dissatisfaction (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Although improvement in the OKS and dissatisfaction after TKR were not significantly associated with social deprivation per se, factors more prevalent within the most deprived groups significantly diminished their improvement in OKS and increased their rate of dissatisfaction following TKR.
This study highlighted the role of nine significant risk factors in the development of VTE after THA or TKA. Among all risk factors, history of VTE seems the one main indication for more potent anticoagulation. All other risk factors need to be considered and discussed with patients individually and balanced against the risk of bleeding and infection. Individual patient risk assessment, rather than a "blanket policy", is considered the best management strategy before deciding on the type of chemical prophylaxis.
Our data show that the majority of patients undergoing total hip replacement can expect to return to work and sporting activities within 4-6 months. Activities at work are often initially limited and physical performance may not fully return to the expected level. Patients with a high body mass index take longer to return to work and sporting activities.
Patients receiving TKA younger than 55 years old should be informed about the increased risks of dissatisfaction. Offering TKA in KL 1/2 is questionable, with a dissatisfaction rate of 59%. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1625-34.
We followed the first 354 consecutive implantations of a cementless, double-tapered straight femoral stem in 326 patients. Follow-up was at a mean of 12 years (10 to 15). The mean age of the patients was 57 years (13 to 81). At follow-up, 56 patients (59 hips) had died, and eight (eight hips) had been lost to follow-up. Twenty-five hips underwent femoral revision, eight for infection, three for periprosthetic fracture and 14 for aseptic loosening. The overall survival was 92% at 12 years (95% CI 88 to 95). Survival with femoral revision for aseptic loosening as an endpoint was 95% (95% CI 92 to 98). The median Harris hip score at follow-up was 84 points (23 to 100). Radiolucent lines (< 2 mm) in Gruen zones 1 and 7 were present in 38 (16%) and 34 hips (14%), respectively. Radiolucencies in zones 2 to 6 were found in five hips (2%). The results for mid- to long-term survival with this femoral component are encouraging and compare with those achieved in primary cemented total hip arthroplasty. The high rate of loosening of the cup and the high rate of pain are, however, a source of concern.
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