a b s t r a c tThe aim of the present study was to determine the duration and efficacy of three local anesthetics in the palmar digital (PD) nerve block. Nine adult horses were randomly allocated in a crossover design (bupivacaine, 5 mg/mL; lidocaine, 20 mg/mL; and ropivacaine, 7.5 mg/mL). The objective lameness evaluations were recorded before and at 5, 10,15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, and 300 minutes after PD block. The relative lameness severity (RLS) was determined and analyzed using the Tukey-Kramer test (P < .05). Lameness improvement (LI) after blocking was determined as a percentage decrease in the quadratic mean (vector sum). The RLS after lameness induction was 4.06 times the threshold (8.5 mm), and the intensity of lameness (time 0) was similar between horses (coefficient of variance ¼ 25%). Five minutes after PD block, all drugs had improved lameness in more than 2.5 times (LI >60%). Bupivacaine, lidocaine, and ropivacaine were effective in blocking at least three times (LI >75%) the experimental lameness. Using 7.5-mg bupivacaine, LI was >3.5 times between 5 and 90 minutes after PD block (LI >83%). With lidocaine (30 mg), between 5 and 90 minutes after blocking a significant LI was observed with a reduction in the lameness intensity greater than 1.2 times (LI >43%). Ropivacaine (11.25 mg) improved lameness in >2.6 times (LI >66%) between 5 and 180 minutes after block. Bupivacaine and ropivacaine showed greater anesthetic effectiveness when compared with lidocaine. The local anesthetics produced a significant LI 5 minutes after blocking. Objective analysis showed a longer analgesic effect of the PD nerve block using ropivacaine than bupivacaine and lidocaine, respectively.
O objetivo deste trabalho foi reportar a infestação de Leporacarus gibbus em coelhos domésticos no Brasil. Foram avaliados 50 coelhos de um biotério no município de Santa Maria, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Todos os animais apresentavam os ácaros aderidos ao pêlo, os quais foram coletados com auxílio de um pente fino, montados em lâmina de vidro e posteriormente identificados como L. gibbus. Os coelhos infestados foram tratados com ivermectina na dose única de 300 mg/kg, via subcutânea, não sendo mais encontrado os ácaros após sete dias do tratamento.
Background: The injury repair process in tendons and ligaments includes different phases such as inflammation, neovascularization, fibroblast proliferation and fibrosis. Collagen type and tissue characteristics of tendon and ligament repair are described such as type collagen differentiation and properties of the scars tissue. The degeneration of articular cartilage when, characterized by loss of the articular layers associated of the decreased of proteoglycans. The aim of this study is to describe by histochemistry techniques the characteristics of tissue scar, collagen type in the repair process of tendons and ligaments, as well as articular cartilage degeneration.Materials, Methods & Results: Tissue samples of equine tendons, ligaments and articular cartilage of the metacarpophalangeal joint region were evaluated by ultrasonography, macroscopically and prepared for routine histopathology (H&E staining). The inclusion criterion of the samples in this study was based on the presence of lesions characterized in H&E stain as fibroplasia, neovascularization, collagenolysis, chondroid metaplasia in tendons and ligaments and fibrillation and cartilaginous eburnation lesions in the articular cartilage samples. The Masson’s trichrome, Picrosirius red and Alcian blue staining techniques were also performed in addition to H&E. Pathologic findings in the tendons and ligaments included fibroplasia, collagenolysis, chondroid metaplasia and lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammation. Tendons and ligaments scars were composed of type III collagen but there was also some type I collagen. Fiber alignment of tendons and ligaments in the reorganization tissue was not flawless and the fiber appearance was characterized by a lack of the fiber crimp and parallelism. The fibroplasia was characterized by endotendinous tickening areas associated with the presence of loose connective tissue. In the areas of loose connective tissue substitution, collagen type fibers are intercalated to a lesser extent by type-III collagen fibers. In the Alcian blue stained samples of articular cartilage observed the surface layer and the matrix zone of calcified cartilage were weakly stained in blue.Discussion: Three special stains were utilized in this study along with the H&E evaluation elucidating the behavior tendons, ligaments and articular cartilage injury. The important observation in this study was fibroplasia in tendons and ligaments seems to be composed by abundant of loose connective tissue, chondrocytes and intermingled collagen type I and III fibers associated with lack of crimps alignment of the fibers. The fragile structure suggested by the Masson’s trichrome stain results (presence of the loose connective tissue) in this study perhaps make the tendons and ligaments receptive to other lesions. The characteristic blue discoloration of collagen fibers was only observed in the loose connective tissue may be because the dye penetration becomes easier when compared to the dense connective tissue (stained in red). The Masson’s trichrome made possible the differentiated the dense connective tissue of the loose connective tissue. The combined histochemistry staining technics allowed an improved characterization of fiber alignment, collagen type, inflammatory cell infiltration and neovascularization, which happens during the repair process of tendons and ligaments. The fibrillation and eburnation of the articular cartilage were associated with the decrease Alcian Blue staining characterized by degeneration process of articular cartilage.
RESUMO.-[Fibrossarcoma oral em jararaca (Bothrops pubescens): aspectos anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos.] Uma serpente de cativeiro, fêmea, quatro anos de idade, do gênero Bothrops apresentou aumento de volume no lado esquerdo da cavidade oral, sugerindo tratar--se de neoplasma. A massa foi removida cirurgicamente e enviada para exame anatomopatológico. Dois meses depois foi observado novo aumento de volume no mesmo local, sugerindo recidiva. A lesão foi removida por completo e também enviada para análise. Histologicamente, as duas amostras consistiam de massa altamente celular, composta por células anaplásicas fusiformes organizadas em feixes entrelaçados e distribuídos por toda extensão tecidual e, ocasionalmente, células poligonais arranjadas em fascículos irregulares. A coloração de tricrômico de Masson apresentou quantidade modesta de colágeno sustentando as células neoplásicas. Não foi observado conteúdo PAS-positivo no citoplasma das células neoplásicas. Os achados histológicos e histoquímicos indicavam tratar-se de neoplasma de célu-las fusiformes, porém não era possível sua classificação. A E-mail: email@example.com A 4-year-old female captive-bred snake of the genus Bothrops showed swelling on the left side of the oral cavity, suggesting the development of neoplasia. The mass was removed surgically and sent for pathological examination. Two months later a new increase in volume in the same site was observed, suggesting recurrence. The lesion was completely removed and sent for pathological analysis. Histologically, the two-samples consisted of a mass with highly-cell density composed of spindle-shaped anaplastic cells arranged in interwoven bundles, distributed throughout the tissue extension and, occasionally, polygonal cells arranged in irregular fascicles. The Masson trichrome staining showed modest amount of collagen supporting the neoplastic cells. PAS-positive content was not observed in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. Histological and histochemical findings indicated that it was a spindle cell neoplasm, but the classification was not possible. Immunohistochemistry was requested and performed using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The markers used were anti-vimentin, anti-PCNA, anti-EMA, anti-melan A and anti-melanosome, anti--desmin, anti-actin, anti-CD68 and anti-S100protein. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and PCNA and negative for the other antibodies. The morphology characterization, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of neoplastic cells allowed the definitive diagnosis of oral fibrosarcoma. Oral fibrosarcoma in jararaca (Bothrops pubescens): anatomopathological and immunohistochemical aspects imuno-histoquímica foi requisitada e realizada pelo método streptavidina-biotina-peroxidase, utilizando os anticorpos anti-vimentina, anti-PCNA, Anti-EMA, anti-melan A, anti--HMB45, anti-desmina, anti-actina, anti-CD68 e anti-proteí-na S-100. As células neoplásicas foram imunorreativas para vimentina e PCNA e, negativas para os demais anticorpos. A ca...
The presented study aimed to assess objectively the response of distal interphalangeal joint (DIJ), navicular bursa (NB) and deep digital flexor tendon sheath (DDFTS) anesthesia in horses with forelimb hoof lameness; and evaluate if the presence of radiographic abnormalities on navicular bone could interfere on blocks' results. Fifteen horses with lameness improvement above 70% after palmar digital nerve (PDN) block were selected for this study. Blocks were assessed separately on five consecutive trials at seven different time-points. The fifth trial was performed to evaluate the influence of exercise on preexisting lameness. Most of horses (73.33%) presented pain related to the podotrochlear apparatus based on clinical and lameness exam and blocks' responses. NB and DIJ anesthesia differed on the frequency of horses with lameness improvement above 70% only at 10min (p=0.03), and both differed from DDFTS block until 30'(p<0.05). The blocks' response was variable along the time and the highest means for NB, DIJ and DDFTS were observed at 5-10 minutes ('), 15-20' and 10-15' respectively.Exercise had low interference on lameness intensity since no improvement above 50% was observed and an increase on lameness intensity over time was identified in seven horses. Variable grades of navicular bone radiographic lesions were observed in 14 horses, although these lesions had no interference on blocks' response (p>0.05). The NB and DIJ blocks had similar responses and both were superior to DDFTS anesthesia, coincident with a major prevalence of podotroclear apparatus abnormalities in this equine population.Keywords: chronic lameness, navicular disease, palmar digital nerve block, osteoarthritis, deep digital flexor tendon sheath anesthesia RESUMO O presente estudo avaliou, de forma objetiva, as respostas do bloqueio da articulação interfalangeana distal (AID), da bursa do navicular (BN) e da bainha do tendão flexor digital profundo (BTFDP) em equinos com claudicação ligada ao casco nos membros torácicos; além de analisar a influência das alterações
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