Normal regulation of glucose metabolism is determined by a feedback loop involving the islet β-cell and insulin-sensitive tissues in which tissue sensitivity to insulin determines the magnitude of the β-cell response. When insulin resistance is present, the β-cell maintains normal glucose tolerance by increasing insulin output. It is only when the β-cell is incapable of releasing sufficient insulin in the presence of insulin resistance that glucose levels rise. While β-cell dysfunction has a clear genetic component, environmental changes play a vital role. Modern approaches have also informed regarding the importance of hexoses, amino acids and fatty acids in determining insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction as well as the potential role of alterations in the microbiome. A number of new treatment approaches have been developed, but more effective therapies that slow the progressive loss of β-cell function are needed. Recent clinical trials have provided important information regarding approaches to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes as well as some of the adverse effects of these interventions. However, additional long-term studies of medications and bariatric surgery are required in order to identify novel approaches to prevention and treatment, thereby reducing the deleterious impact of type 2 diabetes.
Background: Glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists differ in chemical structure, duration of action and in their effects on clinical outcomes. The cardiovascular effects of once-weekly albiglutide in type 2 diabetes are unknown. Methods: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to the addition of once-weekly subcutaneous injection of albiglutide (30 mg to 50 mg) or matching placebo to standard care. We hypothesized that albiglutide would be noninferior to placebo for the primary outcome of first occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. If noninferiority was confirmed by an upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio of less than 1.30, closed-testing for superiority was prespecified. Findings: Overall, 9463 participants were followed for a median of 1.6 years. The primary composite outcome occurred in 338 of 4731 patients (7.1%; 4.6 events per 100 person-years) in the albiglutide group and in 428 of 4732 patients (9.0%; 5.9 events per 100 person-years) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI ], 0.68 to 0.90), indicating that albiglutide, was superior to placebo (P<0.0001 for noninferiority, P=0.0006 for superiority). The incidence of acute pancreatitis (albiglutide 10 patients and placebo 7 patients), pancreatic cancer (6 and 5), medullary thyroid carcinoma (0 and 0), and other serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Interpretation: In patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, albiglutide was superior to placebo with respect to major adverse cardiovascular events. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; Harmony Outcomes ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02465515.) noninferiority; P = 0.06 for superiority). There seems to be variation in the results of existing trials with GLP-1 receptor agonists, which if correct, might reflect drug structure or duration of action, patients studied, duration of follow-up or other factors.
Since the initial COVID-19 outbreak in China, much attention has focused on people with diabetes because of poor prognosis in those with the infection. Initial reports were mainly on people with type 2 diabetes, although recent surveys have shown that individuals with type 1 diabetes are also at risk of severe COVID-19. The reason for worse prognosis in people with diabetes is likely to be multifactorial, thus reflecting the syndromic nature of diabetes. Age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease, obesity, and a pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulative state all probably contribute to the risk of worse outcomes. Glucose-lowering agents and anti-viral treatments can modulate the risk, but limitations to their use and potential interactions with COVID-19 treatments should be carefully assessed. Finally, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection itself might represent a worsening factor for people with diabetes, as it can precipitate acute metabolic complications through direct negative effects on β-cell function. These effects on β-cell function might also cause diabetic ketoacidosis in individuals with diabetes, hyperglycaemia at hospital admission in individuals with unknown history of diabetes, and potentially new-onset diabetes.
Genetic variants in the gene encoding for transcription factor-7-like 2 (TCF7L2) have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and impaired β cell function, but the mechanisms have remained unknown. We therefore studied prospectively the ability of common variants in TCF7L2 to predict future T2D and explored the mechanisms by which they would do this. Scandinavian subjects followed for up to 22 years were genotyped for 3 SNPs (rs7903146, rs12255372, and rs10885406) in TCF7L2, and a subset of them underwent extensive metabolic studies. Expression of TCF7L2 was related to genotype and metabolic parameters in human islets. The CT/TT genotypes of SNP rs7903146 strongly predicted future T2D in 2 independent cohorts (Swedish and Finnish). The risk T allele was associated with impaired insulin secretion, incretin effects, and enhanced rate of hepatic glucose production. TCF7L2 expression in human islets was increased 5-fold in T2D, particularly in carriers of the TT genotype. Overexpression of TCF7L2 in human islets reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In conclusion, the increased risk of T2D conferred by variants in TCF7L2 involves the enteroinsular axis, enhanced expression of the gene in islets, and impaired insulin secretion.
BACKGROUNDDespite growing evidence that bariatric/metabolic surgery powerfully improves type 2 diabetes (T2D), existing diabetes treatment algorithms do not include surgical options.
AIMThe 2nd Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS-II), an international consensus conference, was convened in collaboration with leading diabetes organizations to develop global guidelines to inform clinicians and policymakers about benefits and limitations of metabolic surgery for T2D.
METHODSA multidisciplinary group of 48 international clinicians/scholars (75% nonsurgeons), including representatives of leading diabetes organizations, participated in DSS-II. After evidence appraisal (MEDLINE [1 January 2005-30 September 2015]), three rounds of Delphi-like questionnaires were used to measure consensus for 32 data-based conclusions. These drafts were presented at the combined DSS-II and 3rd World Congress on Interventional Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes (London, U.K., 28-30 September 2015), where they were open to public comment by other professionals and amended face-to-face by the Expert Committee.
RESULTSGiven its role in metabolic regulation, the gastrointestinal tract constitutes a meaningful target to manage T2D. Numerous randomized clinical trials, albeit mostly short/midterm, demonstrate that metabolic surgery achieves excellent glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular risk factors. On the basis of such evidence, metabolic surgery should be recommended to treat T2D in patients with class III obesity (BMI ‡40 kg/m 2 ) and in those with class II obesity (BMI 35.0-39.9 kg/m 2 ) when hyperglycemia is inadequately controlled by lifestyle and optimal medical therapy. Surgery should also be considered for patients with T2D and BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m 2 if hyperglycemia is inadequately controlled despite optimal treatment with either oral or injectable medications. These BMI thresholds should be reduced by 2.5 kg/m 2 for Asian patients.
CONCLUSIONSAlthough additional studies are needed to further demonstrate long-term benefits, there is sufficient clinical and mechanistic evidence to support inclusion of metabolic surgery among antidiabetes interventions for people with T2D and obesity. To date, the DSS-II guidelines have been formally endorsed by 45 worldwide medical and scientific societies. Health care regulators should introduce appropriate reimbursement policies.
OBJECTIVEAlthough initially effective, sulfonylureas are associated with poor glycemic durability, weight gain, and hypoglycemia. Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), reduces hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion independent of insulin and may cause fewer of these adverse effects. We compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of dapagliflozin with the sulfonylurea glipizide in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThis 52-week, double-blind, multicenter, active-controlled, noninferiority trial randomized patients with type 2 diabetes (baseline mean HbA1c, 7.7%), who were receiving metformin monotherapy, to add-on dapagliflozin (n = 406) or glipizide (n = 408) up-titrated over 18 weeks, based on glycemic response and tolerability, to ≤10 or ≤20 mg/day, respectively.RESULTSThe primary end point, adjusted mean HbA1c reduction with dapagliflozin (−0.52%) compared with glipizide (−0.52%), was statistically noninferior at 52 weeks. Key secondary end points: dapagliflozin produced significant adjusted mean weight loss (−3.2 kg) versus weight gain (1.2 kg; P < 0.0001) with glipizide, significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving ≥5% body weight reduction (33.3%) versus glipizide (2.5%; P < 0.0001), and significantly decreased the proportion experiencing hypoglycemia (3.5%) versus glipizide (40.8%; P < 0.0001). Events suggestive of genital infections and lower urinary tract infections were reported more frequently with dapagliflozin compared with glipizide but responded to standard treatment and rarely led to study discontinuation.CONCLUSIONSDespite similar 52-week glycemic efficacy, dapagliflozin reduced weight and produced less hypoglycemia than glipizide in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin. Long-term studies are required to further evaluate genital and urinary tract infections with SGLT2 inhibitors.
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