The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis.
Introduction The treatment of human and animal sporotrichosis is often performed with antifungal agents; however, the emergence of antifungal-resistant strains of Sporothrix species has been reported. We aimed to discuss the ability of Sporothrix species in developing resistance to the conventional antifungals and mechanisms for this. Methodology Published data on databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) were investigated using a combination of keywords from 2008 to 2019 by the StArt tool. Results The minimal inhibitory concentrations values based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) from eight references were classified according to the epidemiological cutoff values in wild-type or non-wild-type strains. In this way, nonwild-type S. schenckii and, mainly, S. brasiliensis isolates were recognized on itraconazole, amphotericin B, terbinafine, and voriconazole, which are strains that deserve more attention toward antifungal control, with a probable risk of mutation to antifungal resistance. Among the few reviewed studied on antifungal resistance, the melanin production capacity (DHN-melanin, L-DOPA melanin, and pyomelanin), the low genetic diversity due to the abnormal number of chromosomes, and the mutation in cytochrome P450 are some of the factors for developing resistance mechanism. Conclusions The emergence of Sporothrix species with in vitro antifungal resistance was evidenced and the possible mechanisms for resistance development may be due to the melanin production capacity, genetic diversity and mutations in cytochrome P450. Further studies should be carried out targeting gene expression for the development of antifungal resistance on Sporothrix species in order to prospect new therapeutic targets for human and veterinary use.
This study evaluated the chemical, cytotoxic and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis properties of commercial essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.). Chemical composition of the oils was identified through gas chromatography with flame ionization detector, and cytotoxicity was performed through MTT assay in VERO cell line. Anti-S. brasiliensis activity was performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 guidelines using isolates obtained from cats and dogs. The major compounds found were carvacrol in the oregano oil (73.9 %) and 1,8-cineole in rosemary and marjoram oils (49.4 and 20.9 %, respectively). All S. brasiliensis isolates were susceptible to the plant oils, including itraconazole-resistant ones. Marjoram and rosemary oils showed MIC of 0.56 and 1.12 mg ml, and MFC of 4.5 and 9 mg ml, respectively. For oregano oil, a strong antifungal activity was observed with MIC and MFC values ≤0.07 mg ml. The weakest cytotoxicity was observed for rosemary oil. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these essential oils in sporotrichosis.
The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute – CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2 μg/mL and >16 μg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1 μg/mL and MFC of 8 μg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25–9 mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25–18 mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25 mg/mL and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70–80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5 mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.
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