Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) include immature monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (PMN-MDSC) cells that share the ability to suppress adaptive immunity and hinder the effectiveness of anti-cancer treatments. Of note, in response to interferon-γ (IFNγ) M-MDSC release the tumor-promoting and immunosuppressive molecule nitric oxide (NO), whereas macrophages largely express anti-tumor properties. Investigating these opposing activities, we found that tumor-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces nuclear accumulation of p50 NF-κB in M-MDSC, diverting their response to IFNγ towards NO-mediated immunosuppression and reducing TNFα expression. At the genome level, p50 NF-κB promoted binding of STAT1 to regulatory Research.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common and severe forms of muscular dystrophy. Oxidative myofibre content, muscle vasculature architecture and exercise tolerance are impaired in DMD. Several studies have demonstrated that nutrient supplements ameliorate dystrophic features, thereby enhancing muscle performance. Here, we report that dietary supplementation with a specific branched-chain amino acid-enriched mixture (BCAAem) increased the abundance of oxidative muscle fibres associated with increased muscle endurance in dystrophic mdx mice. Amelioration of the fatigue index in BCAAem-treated mdx mice was caused by a cascade of events in the muscle tissue, which were promoted by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. VEGF induction led to recruitment of bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitors (EPs), which increased the capillary density of dystrophic skeletal muscle. Functionally, BCAAem mitigated the dystrophic phenotype of mdx mice without inducing dystrophin protein expression or replacing the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein (DAG) complex in the membrane, which is typically lost in DMD. BCAAem supplementation could be an effective adjuvant strategy in DMD treatment.
Human placental mesenchymal stromal cells (pMSCs) have never been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We characterized cells isolated from placental membranes and the basal disc of six IUGR and five physiological placentas. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed every 7 days during a 6-week culture. Expression of hematopoietic, stem, endothelial, and mesenchymal markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. We characterized the multipotency of pMSCs and the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial content and function. Cell viability was high in all samples, and proliferation rate was lower in IUGR compared with control cells. All samples presented a starting heterogeneous population, shifting during culture toward homogeneity for mesenchymal markers and occurring earlier in IUGR than in controls. In vitro multipotency of IUGR-derived pMSCs was restricted because their capacity for adipocyte differentiation was increased, whereas their ability to differentiate toward endothelial cell lineage was decreased. Mitochondrial content and function were higher in IUGR pMSCs than controls, possibly indicating a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism, with the loss of the metabolic characteristics that are typical of undifferentiated multipotent cells.
Introduction: Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is an heterogeneous disease: 30-40% of cases have high expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins (Dual Expressor, DE) and 5-10% have chromosomal rearrangements involving MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 (Double-/ Triple-Hit, DH/TH). Although the optimal treatment for those high-risk lymphomas remains undefined, DA-EPOCH-R produces durable remission with acceptable toxicity (Dunleauvy K, Lancet 2018). TP53 mutation is an independent marker of poor prognosis in patients (pts) with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP therapy. However, its prognostic value in poor prognosis lymphomas, receiving intensive therapy, has not been investigated yet. Methods: A series of consecutive pts (n=87) with biopsy proven diagnosis of DE DLBCL (MYC expression ≥40% and BCL2 expression ≥ 50% of tumor cells) or DE-Single Hit (DE-SH, i.e., DE-DLBCL with a single rearrangement of either MYC, BCL2 or BCL6 oncogenes) or DE-DH/TH (MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements obtained by FISH) were treated with 6 cycles of DA-EPOCH-R and central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis consisting of two courses of high-dose intravenous Methotrexate. Additional eligibility criteria included age ≥18 years and adequate organ functions. Cell of origin (COO) was defined according to Hans algorithm [germinal center B cell like (GCB) and non GCB)]. TP3 mutations were evaluated by next generation sequencing (NGS) based on AmpliseqTM technology or Sanger sequencing and considered positive when a variant allelic frequency ≥10% was detected. Results: Eighty-seven pts were included [n=36 DE only, n=32 DE-SH (n=8 MYC, n=10 BCL2, n=14 BCL6), n=19 DE-DH/TH] with 40 patients (46%) showing a non GCB COO. Pts had a median age of 59 years (range, 24-79 years). Seventy-three pts (84%) had advanced disease and 44 (50%) an high-intermediate/high-risk score as defined by International Prognostic Index (IPI). Only 8 of 87 pts (9%) were consolidated in first clinical remission with autologous stem cell transplantation following DA-EPOCH-R. After a median follow-up of 24 months, 73 are alive (84%) and 14 died [n=12 disease (n=2 CNS disease); n=1 pneumonia; n=1 suicide]. The 2-year PFS and OS were 71% (95%CI, 60-80%) and 76% (95%CI, 61%-85%) for the entire population. For those with IPI 3-5 the PFS and OS were not significant different for DE and DE-SH pts versus DE-DH/TH pts [64% vs 57% p=0.77); 78% vs 57% p=0.12)]. The COO did not influence the outcome for DE only and DE-SH [PFS: 78% vs 71% (p=0.71); 92% vs 86% (p=0.16) for GCB vs non -GCB, respectively]. Fourty-six pts (53%;n=18 DE only, n=18 DE-SH, n=10 DE-DH/TH ) were evaluated for TP53 mutations with 11 pts (24%) carrying a clonal mutation (n=6 in DE, n=3 in DE-SH, n=2 in DE-DH/TH). The 2-year PFS and OS did not significantly change for pts DE and DE-SH TP53 wild type as compared to DE and DE-SH mutated [PFS: 84 % vs 77%, (p=0.45); OS: 87% vs 88%, (p=0.92)]. The two pts DE-DH/TH with TP53 mutation are alive and in complete remission.Conclusions: High risk DLBCL pts treated with DA-EPOCH-R have a favourable outcome independently from high IPI score, DE-SH and DE-DH/TH. Also the presence of TP53 mutations does not negatively affect the outcome of pts treated with this intensive regimen. The efficacy of DA-EPOCH-R in overcoming poor prognostic genetic features in DLBCL should be confirmed in a larger prospective clinical trial. Disclosures Rossi: Daiichi-Sankyo: Consultancy; Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sanofi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Jazz: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Astellas: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Honoraria; Mundipharma: Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria; Sandoz: Honoraria. Carlo-Stella:Takeda: Other: Travel, accommodations; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Honoraria, Other: Travel, accommodations, Research Funding; Rhizen Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Celgene: Research Funding; Amgen: Honoraria; AstraZeneca: Honoraria; Janssen Oncology: Honoraria; MSD: Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria; Genenta Science srl: Consultancy; Janssen: Other: Travel, accommodations; Servier: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel, accommodations; Sanofi: Consultancy, Research Funding; ADC Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: Travel, accommodations, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Boehringer Ingelheim: Consultancy. Corradini:AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Costs; KiowaKirin: Honoraria; Gilead: Honoraria, Other: Travel Costs; Amgen: Honoraria; Celgene: Honoraria, Other: Travel Costs; Daiichi Sankyo: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria, Other: Travel Costs; Jazz Pharmaceutics: Honoraria; Kite: Honoraria; Novartis: Honoraria, Other: Travel Costs; Roche: Honoraria; Sanofi: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria, Other: Travel Costs; Servier: Honoraria; BMS: Other: Travel Costs.
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