The hygienic behavior in honey bees is a complex polygenic trait that serves as a natural defense mechanism against bacterial and fungal brood diseases and Varroa destructor mites infesting brood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary amino acids and vitamins supplement “BEEWELL AminoPlus” on hygienic behavior of Apis mellifera colonies combating microsporidial and viral infections. The experiment was performed during a one-year period on 40 colonies alloted to five groups: one supplemented and infected with Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Deformed wing virus - DWV, Acute bee paralysis virus - ABPV, Chronic bee paralysis virus - CBPV and Sacbrood virus – SBV), three not supplemented, but infected with N. ceranae and/ or viruses, and one negative control group. Beside the l isted pathogens, honey bee trypanosomatids were also monitored in all groups. The supplement “BEEWELL AminoPlus” induced a significant and consistent increase of the hygienic behavior in spite of the negative effects of N. ceranae and viral infections. N. ceranae and viruses significantly and consistently decreased hygienic behavior, but also threatened the survival of bee colonies. The tested supplement showed anti-Nosema effect, since the N. ceranae infection level significantly and consistently declined only in the supplemented group. Among infected groups, only the supplemented one remained Lotmaria passim-free throughout the study. In conclusion, diet supplementation enhances hygienic behavior of honey bee colonies and helps them fight the most common infections of honey bees.
Following the ?one health? principle, we have conducted optimization of a protocol for ?-casein genotyping in cattle in order to select cows with exclusively the A2A2 genotype. Gastrointestinal proteolysis of A1 ?-casein in humans releases beta-casomorphin 7, which is believed to cause a number of diseases/conditions (diabetes mellitus type 1, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, sudden infant death syndrome, autism, schizophrenia, gastrointestinal discomfort, and prolonged gastrointestinal passage time). On the contrary, A2 ?-casein does not cause similar effects on human health, due to its different metabolism. DNA extraction was conducted from blood samples belonging to the laboratory archive of the Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade. Determination of genotypes was performed using the Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (AS-PCR) method. The amplification was preceded by determination of proper primer annealing temperature (65.50 ?C), in order to ensure optimal genotyping results. The results obtained indicated a higher frequency of the A2 allele (0.56) compared to the A1 allele (0.44). Furthermore, in 7 out of 35 tested samples, the A1A1 genotype (20.00%) was found, in 17 samples, the A1A2 genotype (48.60%) was found, and in 11 samples, the A2A2 genotype (31.40%) was found. The molecular methods used ensured reliable ?-casein genotyping that would enable selection of cows with the A2A2 ?-casein genotype, implying production of.
Scrapie is an infectious neurodegenerative disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats that belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The disease is caused by the accumulation of proteinase-resistant isoform of the prion protein. The sheep predisposition to scrapie is associated with polymorphisms of the PrP gene. Genetic susceptibility to scrapie is mainly related to codons 136, 154, and 171. ARR sheep are strongly scrapie resistant and VRQ genotype is the most susceptible. Many countries have scrapie eradication programs based on using rams with resistant genotype. The eradication program has not yet been implemented in the Republic of Serbia. To examine the genetic makeup of sheep in Serbia related to scrapie, we optimized TaqMan probes of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique for three codons. Blood samples from 100 sheep were analyzed by qPCR and the majority of the examined sheep were AA homozygous for the 136 codon. For codon 154 the most frequent genotype was RR and for codon 171 the most frequent genotype was QQ.
The eight-year study (2015–2023) was performed on a large sample of poached European pond turtles infected with Haemogregarina stepanowi and held in a pond that belongs to a quarantine section of Belgrade Zoo. The protected species of European pond turtles have been found in poor health, with general weakness, anorexia, and low motility. Comprehensive cytological, hematological, molecular, and postmortem evaluations have been performed. Initially, Diff Quick staining of the blood smears revealed rounded or elongated erythrocytes, often bearing premeront or U-shaped gamont of the hemogregarines inside. The reduced erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values found in the examined population of infected turtles indicated anemia. Macroscopically, shell necrosis and massive skin hemorrhages were the most prominent findings observed in diseased turtles. Microscopically, the lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen revealed hyperemia, hemorrhages, and the presence of parasitic stages in tissue samples in 31 of 40 necropsied turtles. Cytological and microscopic examination of the samples proved to be sufficient for establishing the infection, but molecular analyses of the 18S sequence were used for phylogenetic studies. Over the years, the number of diseased and dead turtles has decreased, which could be hypothetically attributed to the elimination of leeches as the definitive host.
Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium species, is among the most common causes of bee diseases. The positive effect of Agaricus bisporus mushroom extract on the survival and immunity of Nosema-infected bees has been reported recently. The effect could be achieved by stimulating the expression of immune-related genes, but also by suppressing nosemosis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of A. bisporus extract on the oxidative status of bees infected with N. ceranae. In a cage experiment on newly hatched bees, the effect of aqueous extract of champignon (A. bisporus, strain A15) was investigated. Six groups were formed: three groups were infected and received A. bisporus extract through food at different times (days 1, 3, and 6 after hatching), one group received the extract but was not infected (treatment control), one was only infected with Nosema (positive control) and one was neither infected nor received the extract (negative control). The effects were examined on samples taken on days 7 and 15 of the study. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. In comparison to the positive control, the enzyme activities and MDA concentrations were significantly lower in the groups fed with the mushroom extract supplement. In the negative control, the level of oxidative stress was lower than in the positive control. In comparison with the other groups, the values mostly did not differ significantly. The oxidative status of bees infected with N. ceranae was significantly better if they were fed with the A. bisporus extract.
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