Background and purpose:We examined whether cannabinoid CB1 and histamine H3 receptors resemble a2-adrenoceptors in that their presynaptically mediated cardiovascular effects are less marked in urethane-than in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized pithed rats. Experimental approach: Effects of the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 and the H3 receptor agonist imetit on electrically induced tachycardic and vasopressor responses, respectively, was compared in pithed rats anaesthetized with urethane or pentobarbitone. The affinity of urethane for the three receptors was measured by radioligand binding studies in rat brain cortex membranes and its potency assessed in superfused mouse tissues preincubated with 3 H-noradrenaline. Key results: The neurogenic tachycardic response was less markedly inhibited by CP-55,940 in urethane-than in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized pithed rats. Imetit inhibited the neurogenic vasopressor response after pentobarbitone but not after urethane. The catecholamine-induced tachycardic and vasopressor response did not differ between rats anaesthetized with either compound. Urethane 10 mM (plasma concentration reached under anaesthesia) did not affect binding to CB1 or H3 receptors and a2 adrenoceptors, nor did it alter the inhibitory effect of agonists at the three receptors on electrically evoked 3 H-noradrenaline release. Conclusions and implications:Urethane, but not pentobarbitone, abolished the H3 receptor-mediated vascular response in pithed rats and attenuated the CB1 receptor-mediated cardiac response much more than pentobarbitone. The weaker effects of CB1, H3 and a2 receptor agonists cannot be explained by antagonism by urethane at the three receptors in vitro. Pentobarbitone, but not urethane, is suitable as an anaesthetic for investigations of inhibitory presynaptic receptor function in pithed and anaesthetized rats. (2009) British Journal of Pharmacology IntroductionPithed animals offer the opportunity to study the influence of pre- (Armstrong and Boura, 1973) and postsynaptic receptors (Shipley and Tilden, 1947) on cardiovascular parameters under conditions that resemble the in vivo situation in many respects. One major advantage of such preparations is the fact that basal blood pressure and heart rate (HR) are very stable since they are no longer under the control of reflex loops involving the central nervous system (CNS). Prior to pithing, the animals have to be anaesthetized. The choice of the anaesthetic is of crucial importance on the effect of test drugs on cardiovascular parameters studied later in the pithed animal. For instance, in pithed rats the cardiovascular responses to a2-adrenoceptor agonists acting at pre-and postsynaptic a2-adrenoceptors wereCorrespondence: E Schlicker,
Lesistenza delle strutture della Chiesa in Polonia e condizionata dalle libere offerte dei credenti, perche la Chiesa non approfitta dell’aiuto materiale dello Stato. Le offerte si raccoglie generalmente durante delle domeniche e dei giorni festivi ed esse costituiscono il contributo fondamentale per il mantenimento della Chiesa. Questa problematica si e mostrata come punto d’interesse dei sinodi diocesani in Polonia negli anni 1967-2005. L’autore dell’articolo ha spiegato il termine colletta, il tempo della raccolta delle offerte, la loro destinazione, il problema del rimandare le offerte a curia, la contabilità in parrocchia. Secondo dei sinodi diocesani la colletta fatta nelle parrocchie costituisce una forma particolare della decima offerta dai credenti per i bisogni della Chiesa. Queste offerte sono indispensabili per realizzare gli obiettivi propri della Chiesa, per il culto, per mantenere il clero e le opere della carità cristiana.
gospodarcze publiczne ma duży wpływ na rozwój państwa i przemysłu. To państwo realizuje różne cele społeczne i gospodarcze. By dobrze funkcjonowała gospodarka państwowa, powinna kierować się prawem gospodarczym publicznym. Cele gospodarcze państwa są związane z wielkością produktu krajowego, poziomem zatrudnienia, stabilnością waluty, poziomem cen i równowagą wymiany handlowej z zagranicą. Oddziaływanie państwa na gospodarkę a przy tym na rozwój przemysłu dokonuje się przy pomocy prawa gospodarczego publicznego. Annotation. Public economic law has a great impact on the development of the To function in a proper way, state economy should be guided by public economic law. Economic goals of the state are related to the size of the domestic product, the level of employment, stability of the currency, the price level and the balance of trade with foreign countries. The impact of the state on the economy and, at the same time, on the development of the industry is carried out with the help of public economic law.
Mentally ill patients are influenced by the progress of their illness and the conditions they come across when being in hospital. Moreover, the patient's mental state is the key factor conditioning the course of treatment and the speed of recuperation. Therefore, when the patient is admitted to hospital it's significant to provide him/her with the good care to compensate the seperation from one's family and surroundings. It is highly important to ask for the patient's habits and routines and to inform the family about the visiting hours and the possibility of enquiring about the patient's condition. For this reasion, the hospital staff should create the atmosphere which satisfies the patient's needs and which simultaneously has a positive impact on his/her psyche.
Professional ethics contains general specific and ethical norms, concerning a given profession. The subject are specialists, performing a specific mission towards society. These include employees of public administration. Job of public administration officials come under moral evaluation of the recipients of that profession. Currently, professional ethics heaves increasingly larger circles of professions, performing the work to the society. Also arise codes of practice of individual professions. Professional ethics contributes to a more conscientious, professional and responsible work in public administration.
John Paul the Great, during his teaching, addressed to the youth of the world a lot of special well-known words. He always had time and a good word for young people during meetings with the youth: the special is the Letter of the Young People in the World Parati simper; in addition, meetings within the World Youth Days and during his pilgrimage to the countries around the world, where he met with youth. The article presents the most meaningful events and words to the young of the whole world.
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