This paper presents a detailed study of the mechanism to design a compiler of Smali language to generate optimized Android applications. Smali language; which includes the dex bytecode; is the assembly language under Android OS, it is generated from the Java source code. The phases of designing the target compiler are described and the structure of files that are the input and output of the compiler are explained.
In this paper, a Stable, Thermal-aware and Energy-efficient routing Protocol (STEP) is proposed for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) that not only deals with the thermal aspects and hot-spots problem but also saves energy and extends the stability period and network lifetime. Direct communication is used for real-time traffic (critical data) while multi-hop communication is used for normal data delivery. In multi-hop communication to achieve minimum power consumption and minimum temperature rise, the proposed protocol has a new cost function using multi-criteria decision making MCDM methods to determine the parent node or the forwarder. These methods provide a flexible decision-making process for selecting the next hop by considering different criteria at the same time. The proposed cost function has three criteria: residual energy, distance to the sink node and temperature. Residual energy criterion balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes while distance criterion ensures successful packet delivery to the sink node and minimize the energy that will be consumed, the temperature criterion will avoid routing across hot nodes to protect the tissues. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol preserves the energy and increases the network lifetime & stability period so nodes stay alive for a longer period. A longer stability period contributes significantly to the delivery of packets, which is very important for continuous patient monitoring. Results also depict that the proposed protocol can achieve a better balance of the temperature rise comparing to the previous protocols.
This paper presents a morphological processing system as a part of arabic text to arabic sign language machine translation system. This morphological processing depends on Farasa analyzer tool, Stanford model and Arramooz lexicon. The characteristics of sign language are achieved to get intermediate arabic sign language sentences. Then these sentences are searched in a sign language dictionary word by word to display the related signs images if available, or to display letters of word using finger spelling alphabet images. The proposed system is tested on many non-vowelized arabic sentences, and good results and high accuracy are obtained.
Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) is very important because they are infrastructure-less, so the routing protocol in these networks works on each node. If routing protocols do not work properly, the network will stop. In these networks, there is no centralized control or server to control the activities of nodes, so they are more vulnerable to many security risks and attacks such as the black hole attack and the gray hole attack. In this paper, the proposed Defensive AODV protocol (DAODV) is used to defend against these attack using the V-Detector algorithm which is an artificial immune system algorithm. The results show that the proposed DAODV provides much better performance than the normal AODV in the presence of malicious nodes in the network.
This paper presents the effect of saving Android application execution time on saving energy consumed by optimized applications. An algorithm for optimizing instructions on a Smali code-level proposes to provide execution time. The Smali optimization algorithm relies on replacing high execution times instructions with lower execution times ones and equivalent in behavior. MySMALI compiler is designed to support the proposed optimization algorithm and applied on Android applications. Optimized APK files are generated for optimized applications. Measurements of APKs execution times are taken. Measurements prove that the percentage of optimization in execution time is approximately 26.27%. The paper provides code-level estimates of the energy consumption of Android applications. A programmatic method about reading operating system files is applied to determine resource consumption by the applications. Energy measurements are also recorded by a power monitor (PowerTutor) for Android-based mobile platforms. The measurements of resources (Memory, CPU, Disk) consumption prove that the optimized compiler helps to save the consumption percentage of Android applications about 19.9%. The memory consumed is provided by the optimized compiler to approximately 20000 Kbyte and 31.7 KB size of files. The time that the optimized process of application consumes from the CPU time is reduced from 26% to 5%. The results demonstrate that the providing execution times of applications can save energy consumed to approximately 8.4%, and can save the power consumption by up to 14%.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers