Building a 3D geological model from field and subsurface data is a typical task in geological studies involving natural resource evaluation and hazard assessment. However, there is quite often a gap between research papers presenting case studies or specific innovations in 3D modeling and the objectives of a typical class in 3D structural modeling, as more and more is implemented at universities. In this paper, we present general procedures and guidelines to effectively build a structural model made of faults and horizons from typical sparse data. Then we describe a typical 3D structural modeling workflow based on triangulated surfaces. Our goal is not to replace software user guides, but to provide key concepts, principles, and procedures to be applied during geomodeling tasks, with a specific focus on quality control.
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Normal brain development is associated with expansion and folding of the cerebral cortex following a highly orchestrated sequence of gyral-sulcal formation. Although several studies have described the evolution of cerebral cortical development ex vivo or ex utero, to date, very few studies have characterized and quantified the gyrification process for the in vivo fetal brain. Recent advances in fetal magnetic resonance imaging and post-processing computational methods are providing new insights into fetal brain maturation in vivo. In this study, we investigate the in vivo fetal cortical folding pattern in healthy fetuses between 25 and 35 weeks gestational age using 3-D reconstructed fetal cortical surfaces. We describe the in vivo fetal gyrification process using a robust feature extraction algorithm applied directly on the cortical surface, providing an explicit delineation of the sulcal pattern during fetal brain development. We also delineate cortical surface measures, including surface area and gyrification index. Our data support an exuberant third trimester gyrification process and suggest a non-linear evolution of sulcal development. The availability of normative indices of cerebral cortical developing in the living fetus may provide critical insights on the timing and progression of impaired cerebral development in the high-risk fetus.
International audienceIn this paper, we aim at providing a flexible and compact volumetric object model capable of representing many sedimentary structures at different scales. Geo-bodies are defined by a boundary representation; each bounding surface is constructed as a parametric deformable surface. We propose a three-dimensional sedimentary object with a compact parametrization which allows for representing various geometries and provides a curvilinear framework for modeling internal heterogeneities. This representation is based on Non Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) smoothly interpolate between a set of points. The three-dimensional models of geobodies are generated using a small number of parameters, and hence can be easily modified. This can be done by a point and click user interactions for manual editing or by a Monte-Carlo sampling for stochastic simulation. Each elementary shape is controlled by deformation rules and has connection constraints with associated objects, in order to maintain the geometry and the consistency through editing. The boundary representations of the different sedimentary structures are used to construct hexahedral conformal grids in order to perform petrophysical property simulations following the particular three-dimensional parametric space of each object. Finally these properties can be upscaled, according to erosion rules, to a global grid that represents the global depositional environment
International audienceKarst systems are hierarchically spatially organized three-dimensional (3D) networks of conduits behaving as drains for groundwater flow. Recently, geostatistical approaches proposed to generate karst networks from data and parameters stemming from analogous observed karst features. Other studies have qualitatively highlighted relationships between speleogenetic processes and cave patterns. However, few studies have been performed to quantitatively define these relationships. This paper reports a quantitative study of cave geometries and topologies that takes the underlying speleogenetic processes into account. In order to study the spatial organization of caves, a 3D numerical database was built from 26 caves, corresponding to 621 km of cumulative cave passages representative of the variety of karst network patterns. The database includes 3D speleological surveys for which the speleogenetic context is known, allowing the polygenic karst networks to be divided into 48 monogenic cave samples and classified into four cave patterns: vadose branchwork (VB), water-table cave (WTC), looping cave (LC), and angular maze (AM). Eight morphometric cave descriptors were calculated, four geometrical parameters (width-height ratio, tortuosity, curvature, and vertical index) and four topological ones (degree of node connectivity, α and γ graph indices, and ramification index) respectively. The results were validated by statistical analyses (Kruskal-Wallis test and PCA). The VB patterns are clearly distinct from AM ones and from a third group including WTC and LC. A quantitative database of cave morphology characteristics is provided, depending on their speleogenetic processes. These characteristics can be used to constrain and/or validate 3D geostatistical simulations. This study shows how important it is to relate the geometry and connectivity of cave networks to recharge and flow processes. Conversely, the approach developed here provides proxies to estimate the evolution of the vadose zone to epiphreatic and phreatic zones in limestones from the quantitative analysis of existing cave patterns
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