Recent studies on mutations in cancer genomes have distinguished driver mutations from passenger mutations, which occur as byproducts of cancer development. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) project identified 299 genes and 24 pathways/biological processes that drive tumor progression (Cell 173: 371-385 e318, 2018). Of the 299 driver genes, 12 genes are involved in histones, histone methylation, and demethylation. Among these 12 genes, those encoding the histone demethylases JARID1C/KDM5C and UTX/KDM6A were identified as cancer driver genes. Furthermore, gain-of-function mutations in genes encoding metabolic enzymes, such as isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH)1/2, drive tumor progression by producing an oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), which is a competitive inhibitor of α-ketoglutarate, O 2 -dependent dioxygenases such as Jumonji domain-containing histone demethylases, and DNA demethylases. Studies on oncometabolites suggest that histone demethylases mediate metabolic changes in chromatin structure. We have reviewed the most recent findings regarding cancer-specific metabolic reprogramming and the tumor-suppressive roles of JARID1C/KDM5C and UTX/KDM6A. We have also discussed mutations in other isoforms such as the JARID1A, 1B, 1D of KDM5 subfamilies and the JMJD3/KDM6B of KDM6 subfamilies, which play opposing roles in tumor progression as oncogenes or tumor suppressors depending on the cancer cell type.
Activation of Raf reduces the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 at the INK4a locus by inducing the H3K27me3 demethylase JMJD3. During hypoxia, the catalyitc activity of JMJD3 is reduced due to the limited availability of O 2 as a substrate. In our study, we found that hypoxia prevented Raf-induced JMJD3 from demethylating H3K27me3 at the INK4a locus. Nonetheless, hypoxia did not prevent Raf signaling from inducing INK4a mRNA. Interestingly, we found that hypoxia strongly enhanced the active histone mark H3K4me3 at the INK4a locus by inhibiting the H3K4me3 demethylases JARID1A and JARID1B. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the O 2 concentration in the microenvironment differentially affects the repressive methylation on K27 and the activating methylation on K4 at the INK4a locus by inhibiting the H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 demethylases.
Adipogenesis is a process which induces or represses many genes in a way to drive irreversible changes of cell phenotypes; lipid accumulation, round cell-shape, secreting many adipokines. As a master transcription factor (TF), PPARγ2 induces several target genes to orchestrate these adipogenic changes. Thus induction of Pparg2 gene is tightly regulated by many adipogenic and also anti-adipogenic factors. Four hours after the treatment of adipogenic hormones, more than fifteen TFs including glucocorticoid receptor (GR), C/EBPβ and AP-1 cooperatively bind the promoter of Pparg2 gene covering 400 bps, termed “hotspot”. In this study, we show that TEA domain family transcription factor (TEAD)4 reinforces occupancy of both GR and C/EBPβ on the hotspot of Pparg2 during early adipogenesis. Our findings that TEAD4 requires GR for its expression and for the ability to bind its own promoter and the hotspot region of Pparg2 gene indicate that GR is a common component of two positive circuits, which regulates the expression of both Tead4 and Pparg2. Wnt3a disrupts these mutually related positive circuits by limiting the nuclear location of GR in a β-catenin dependent manner. The antagonistic effects of β-catenin extend to cytoskeletal remodeling during the early phase of adipogenesis. GR is necessary for the rearrangements of both cytoskeleton and chromatin of Pparg2, whereas Wnt3a inhibits both processes in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Our results suggest that hotspot formation during early adipogenesis is related to cytoskeletal remodeling, which is regulated by the antagonistic action of GR and β-catenin, and that Wnt3a reinforces β-catenin function.
This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2) and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2). We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA) reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP) are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein.
Hypoxia induces the expression of several genes through the activation of a master transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. This study shows that hypoxia strongly induced the expression of two carboxypeptidases (CP), CPA4 and CPE, in an HIF-1α-dependent manner. The hypoxic induction of CPA4 and CPE gene was accompanied by the recruitment of HIF-1α and upregulation in the active histone modification, H3K4me3, at their promoter regions. The hypoxic responsiveness of CPA4 and CPE genes was observed in human adipocytes, human adipose-derived stem cells, and human primary fibroblasts but not mouse primary adipocyte progenitor cells. CPA4 and CPE have been identified as secreted exopeptidases that degrade and process other secreted proteins and matrix proteins. This finding suggests that hypoxia changes the microenvironment of the obese hypoxic adipose tissue by inducing the expression of not only adipokines but also peptidases such as CPA4 and CPE.
Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.
Histones are closely related to the state of chromatin, and epigenetic modification of their tail results in regulation in cells. Therefore, developing various analytical tools to map the changes in position and distribution of histone modifications is helpful in studying underlying mechanisms. Herein, we propose a high-spatial and colourimetric imaging method using plasmonic nanoparticles as probes to visualize heterochromatin histone markers in a single nucleus. We visualized the reorganization between repressive histone markers, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, caused by oncogene-induced senescence based on the scattering colours and spectral shift of plasmonic nanoprobes to longer wavelengths using their distance-dependent coupling effect. The measured scattering profiles were correlated with the computation results simulating the scattering spectra according to the arrangements and distances among the plasmonic nanoprobes. The plasmonic nanoprobe-based high-spatial hyperspectral imaging provides an advanced way to study the dynamics of histone modifications for predicting the progression of diseases or senescence.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.