Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic estuarine bacterium that causes fatal septicemia and necrotizing wound infections in humans. Virulent V. vulnificus isolates produce a catechol siderophore called vulnibactin, made up of one residue of 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, 3-DHBA) and two residues of salicylic acid (SA). Vulnibactin biosynthetic genes (VV2_0828 to VV2_0844) are clustered at one locus of chromosome 2, expression of which is significantly up-regulated in vivo. In the present study, we decipher the biosynthetic network of vulnibactin, focusing specifically on genes around SA and 2, 3-DHBA biosynthetic steps. Deletion mutant of isochorismate pyruvate lyase (VV2_0839) or 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoate-2, 3-dehydrogenase (VV2_0834) showed retarded growth under iron-limited conditions though the latter showed more significant growth defect than the former, suggesting a dominant role of 2, 3-DHBA in the vulnibactin biosynthesis. A double deletion mutant of VV2_0839 and VV2_0834 manifested additional growth defect under iron limitation. Though the growth defect of respective single deletion mutants could be restored by exogenous SA or 2, 3-DHBA, only 2, 3-DHBA could rescue the double mutant when supplied alone. However, double mutant could be rescued with SA only when hydrogen peroxide was supplied exogenously, suggesting a chemical conversion of SA to 2, 3-DHBA. Assembly of two SA and one 2, 3-DHBA into vulnibactin was mediated by two AMP ligase genes (VV2_0836 and VV2_0840). VV2_0836 deletion mutant showed more significant growth defect under iron limitation, suggesting its dominant function. In conclusion, using molecular genetic analytical tools, we confirm that vulnibactin is assembled of both 2, 3-DHBA and SA. However, conversion of SA to 2, 3-DHBA in presence of hydrogen peroxide and growth profile of AMP ligase mutants suggest a plausible existence of yet unidentified alternative siderophore that may be composed solely of 2, 3-DHBA.
Two-thirds of ASD cases in the overall sample were in the mainstream school population, undiagnosed and untreated. These findings suggest that rigorous screening and comprehensive population coverage are necessary to produce more accurate ASD prevalence estimates and underscore the need for better detection, assessment, and services.
Extracellular matrices (ECM) are secreted molecules that constitute the cell microenvironment, composed of a dynamic and complex array of glycoproteins, collagens, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. ECM provides the bulk, shape and strength of many tissues in vivo, such as basement membrane, bone and cartilage. In vitro, most animal cells can only grow when they are attached to surfaces through ECM. ECM is also the substrate for cell migration. However, ECM provides much more than just mechanical and structural support, with implications in developmental patterning, stem cell niches and cancer. ECM imparts spatial context for signalling events by various cell surface growth factor receptors and adhesion molecules such as integrins. The external physical properties of ECM may also have a role in the signalling process. ECM molecules can be flexible and extendable, and mechanical tension can expose cryptic sites, which could further interact with growth factors or their receptors. ECM proteins and structures can determine the cell behaviour, polarity, migration, differentiation, proliferation and survival by communicating with the intracellular cytoskeleton and transmission of growth factor signals. Integrins and proteoglycans are the major ECM adhesion receptors which cooperate in signalling events, determining the signalling outcomes, and thus the cell fate. This review focuses on the emerging concept of spatial cell biology of ECM, especially the current understanding of integrins and heparan sulphate proteoglycans as the essential cellular machineries that sense, integrate and respond to the physical and chemical environmental information either by directly connecting with the local adhesion sites or by regulating global cellular processes through growth factor receptor signalling pathways, leading to the integration of both external and internal signals in space and time.
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Similar to IL-1β, IL-18 is synthesized as an inactive precursor requiring processing by caspase-1 into an active cytokine but unlike IL-1β, the IL-18 precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cells in healthy humans and animals. The activity of IL-18 is balanced by the presence of a high affinity, naturally occurring IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). In humans, increased disease severity can be associated with an imbalance of IL-18 to IL-18BP such that the levels of free IL-18 are elevated in the circulation. Increasing number of studies have expanded the role of IL-18 in mediating inflammation in animal models of disease using the IL-18BP, IL-18-deficient mice, neutralization of IL-18, or deficiency in the IL-18 receptor alpha chain. A role for IL-18 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, myocardial function, emphysema, metabolic syndromes, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, hemophagocytic syndromes, macrophage activation syndrome, sepsis, and acute kidney injury, although in some models of disease, IL-18 is protective. IL-18 plays a major role in the production of interferon-γ from T-cells and natural killer cells. The IL-18BP has been used safely in humans and clinical trials of IL-18BP as well as neutralizing anti-IL-18 antibodies are in clinical trials. This review updates the biology of IL-18 as well as its role in human disease.
We present a method for synthesizing MoS(2)/Graphene hybrid heterostructures with a growth template of graphene-covered Cu foil. Compared to other recent reports, (1, 2) a much lower growth temperature of 400 °C is required for this procedure. The chemical vapor deposition of MoS(2) on the graphene surface gives rise to single crystalline hexagonal flakes with a typical lateral size ranging from several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The precursor (ammonium thiomolybdate) together with solvent was transported to graphene surface by a carrier gas at room temperature, which was then followed by post annealing. At an elevated temperature, the precursor self-assembles to form MoS(2) flakes epitaxially on the graphene surface via thermal decomposition. With higher amount of precursor delivered onto the graphene surface, a continuous MoS(2) film on graphene can be obtained. This simple chemical vapor deposition method provides a unique approach for the synthesis of graphene heterostructures and surface functionalization of graphene. The synthesized two-dimensional MoS(2)/Graphene hybrids possess great potential toward the development of new optical and electronic devices as well as a wide variety of newly synthesizable compounds for catalysts.
How organ size is controlled in mammals is not currently understood. In Drosophila the Hippo signaling pathway functions to suppress growth in imaginal discs and has been suggested to control organ size. To investigate the role of hippo signaling in regulation of mammalian organ size we have generated conditional alleles of Sav1 , mst1 , and mst2 , orthologs of Drosophila Salvador and hippo , respectively. Specific deletion of both mst1 and mst2 in hepatocytes results in significantly enlarged livers due to excessive proliferation. By the age of 5–6 months, mst1/2 conditional mutant livers have multiple foci of liver tumors, indicating that the combined activities of mst1 and mst2 act as redundant tumor suppressors in hepatocytes. Similar findings were obtained with liver-specific deletion of Sav1 , a second core Hippo signaling component that facilitates activation of mst1 and mst2 . Tumors from sav1 mutants exhibited varied morphology, suggesting a mixed-lineage origin of tumor-initiating cells. Transcriptional profiling of liver tissues from both mst1/2 and sav1 conditional mutants revealed a network of Hippo signaling regulated genes with specific enrichment for genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Histological and immunological characterization of mst1/2 double mutant liver tissues revealed abundant accumulation of adult facultative stem cells termed oval cells in periductal regions. Because oval cells induction is commonly associated with liver injury and tumor formation, it is likely that these cells contribute to the enlarged livers and hepatomas that we observe in sav1 and mst1/2 mutants. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the Hippo signaling pathway is a critical regulator of mammalian liver growth and a potent suppressor of liver tumor formation.
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