Background: Numerous unique characteristics of the nanosized gold, including high atomic number, low toxicity, and high biocompatibility make it one of the most appropriate nanostructures to boost radiotherapy efficacy. Many in-vivo and in-vitro investigations have indicated that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can significantly increase tumor injuries in low kilovoltage radiotherapy. While deep-lying tumors require much higher energy levels with greater penetration power, and investigations carried out in megavoltage energy range show contradictory results.Objective: In this study, we quantitatively assess and compare dose enhancement factors (DEFs) obtained through AuNPs under radiation of Cobalt-60 source (1.25MeV) versus Iridium-192 source (0.380 KeV) using MAGAT gel dosimeter.Material and Methods: MAGAT polymer gel in both pure and combined with 0.2 mM AuNPs was synthesized. In order to quantify the effect of energy on DEF, irradiation was carried out by Co-60 external radiotherapy and Ir-192 internal radiotherapy. Finally, readings of irradiated and non-irradiated gels were performed by MR imaging.Result: The radiation-induced R2 (1/T2) changes of the gel tubes doped with AuNPs compared to control samples, upon irradiation of beams released by Ir-192 source showed a significant dose enhancement (15.31% ±0.30) relative to the Co-60 external radiotherapy (5.85% ±0.14).Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests the feasibility of using AuNPs in radiation therapy (RT), especially in low-energy sources of brachytherapy. In addition, MAGAT polymer gel, as a powerful dosimeter, could be used for 3D visualization of radiation dose distribution of AuNPs in radiotherapy.
Flax (Linum usitassimum L.) of family Linaceae is one of the most important crops, which has been widely used from ancient times. The aim of the study was to examine seed morphological characteristics and fatty acids differences among 13 populations of flax (11 from Iran, one from Turkey and one from USA). We studied six morphological variables of seeds in 50 replications. The methyl esters of seeds fatty acids were analyzed using GC. We detected that the flax seeds shape and color were stable among the populations, whereas ANOVA proved significant variations for all the quantitative seed morphological features. Moreover, we found the main fatty acids of the seed oil remained consistent over the ecological and geographical ranges of the populations, except for Khorasan and Turkey populations differed from the rest by their second main fatty acid. We registered that the amounts of main fatty acids differed among the populations and ANOVA test proved significant differences for most of the identified fatty acids. In addition, significant relationships were registered between some fatty acids. The populations were clustered in UPGMA tree and PCO plot into three distinct groups. CA joined plot and PCA biplot demonstrated that each group had specific type and amount of fatty acid. Therefore, we defined three chemotypes: petroselinic acid, linoleic and linolenic acids, and oleic acid. Although, studied ecological factors influenced some fatty acids amounts, populations from different phytogeographical regions clustered closely as chemotypes. This revealed that populations of each chemotype have been originated from the same diversity center, and some secondary diversity centers exist for flax in the world.
In this paper, the influence of the locating additive or placing porous-medium film on the heat transfer of a micro-channel by injecting fluid from its lower wall is investigated. The boundary condition slipwalls for the lower and higher walls of the micro-channel and orderly, as insulation and constant temperature is considered, respectively results show that the heat transfer increased with increasing Darcy number and the porous-medium film thickness. The consequences disclosed that the place of the porous-film has a substantial effect on heat transfer. The percentage changes observed for cases such the porous layer in the middle of the micro-channel, near the two upper and lower walls, near the upper wall, near the upper wall and in the form of a rib, along the length of the micro-channel with L /3 and L/5 is-14%, 2.25%, 5.46%, 55.53%, 70.5% and 86.27% for nusselt number compared to the porous layer-less state.
In this paper, an optimization was performed to achieve uniform distribution of convective heat transfer coefficient over a target plate using two impinging slot (air) jets. The objective function is the root mean square error (Erms) of the local Nusselt distribution computed by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations from desired Nusselt numbers. This pattern search minimized this objective function. Design variables are nozzle widths, jet-to-jet distance, jet-to-target plate distance, frequency of pulsations (for pulsating jets), and the flow rate. First, an inverse design is performed for two steady jets for simplicity and the obtained errors for three different desired Nusselt numbers, NuD = 7, 10, and 13, were 20.73%, 20.08%, and 22.92%, respectively. Uniform distribution of heat transfer coefficient for two steady jets was not achieved. Thus, two pulsating jets are considered. The range of design variables for pulsating state is as same as steady-state and heat transfer rates increased about 400% over steady-state due to the effects of pulsations in inlet velocity. Thus, in the pulsating state, optimization must be performed for the desired Nusselt numbers around four-times NuD in the steady-state, i.e., NuD = 28, 40, and 52. The Erms reduced less than 0.01% and distribution of heat transfer coefficient for all cases was uniform. An experimental study using an inverse heat conduction method (conjugate gradient method with adjoint equation) has been performed and the experimental results for the case of NuD = 52 are presented. The estimated distribution of Nusselt number on the target plate with the numerical distribution has around 3.2% relative error with optimal configuration.
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