Calf diarrhea is a common disease in young animals and the primary cause of productivity and economic losses to cattle producers worldwide. According to the report from the National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, more than fifty percent of the deaths of un-weaned calves is attributed to severe diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain K99+ remains the most common pathogen isolated from calves which are younger than three days of age. Dam vaccination and the use of antimicrobials remain the most used prophylactic and treatment options for calf diarrhea. The rise in antibiotic resistance around the world has been a major concern and new alternative therapies have been explored. Mycobacterium Cell Wall Fraction (MCWF) is a biological immunomodulator that has a potential in multiple veterinary health services such as the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and anticancer therapy in both small and large animals. The efficacy of the MCWF in reducing the severity of neonatal calf diarrhea and its associated mortality, following challenge with ETEC K99+ was evaluated. Twenty-three calves were placed into two experimental groups. Eleven calves received a single 1 mL dose of MCWF intravenously (IV) at the onset of clinical signs of disease following challenge. Twelve non-treated, challenged calves were retained as controls. The severity and duration of diarrhea was significantly reduced in the MCWF treated group compared to untreated controls. In addition, the mortality rate in the MCWF treated group was significantly reduced to 10% while the observed mortality in the control group reached 58%. Data from the current study suggest that MCWF could be used as an alternative treatment to reduce the severity, duration and mortality of ETEC induced diarrhea in neonatal calves.
This paper describes a case of aelurostrongylosis in a four-month old female domestic cat (Felis catus) from South Banat, Serbia. The kitten that had died suddenly without signs of illness was autopsied in the Veterinary Specialised Institute "Pančevo". The macroscopic finding was typical of granulomatous pneumonia and subsequently, histopathology revealed verminous pneumonia. Based on the parasite morphology, it was confirmed that the lung lesions were caused by Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. The present finding contributes to the knowledge of the prevalence of this underestimated parasite in the Balkan Peninsula.
This paper reports on an outbreak of fumonisin toxicosis in a stable with 100 horses. Twenty-one horses were affected and fifteen died within a month. The animals were not febrile and exhibited poor appetite, somnolence, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, lethargy, and seizures, ending with death. The post mortem examination of the head of one 18-month-old colt revealed large, bilateral, slightly asymmetrical large areas of necrosis of the cerebral white matter. The lesions involved the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes only. Histological findings revealed leukomalacia with necrosis, infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils, haemorrhage and oedema of the surrounding grey matter. In response to the pathological findings, which indicated equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM), feed samples from the premises were tested for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2). The milled maize samples contained 6.0 mg/kg FB1 and 2.4 mg/kg FB2, while the maize bran contained 6.05 mg/kg FB1 and 1.68 mg/kg FB2. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of fumonisin toxicosis. Hence, this report indicates that Serbia is one of the few regions in Europe with proven cases of ELEM.
Background: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a disorder characterized by amyloid deposition in the wall of cerebral blood vessels. The deposits of amyloid occur frequently in the blood vessels of the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex. Objective: To examine the characteristics of CAA classified according to the Vonsattel scale in elderly dogs histologically and immunohistochemically as well as the semi-quantitative evaluation of the amyloid deposits in the different segments of the brain. Animals and methods: The brains of 36 dogs of different breeds and sexes, which had been routinely necropsied, were used and divided into two groups: dogs from 1 to 5 and 10 to 18 years old. The tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red and immunohistochemically. Results: Amyloid was accumulated in the wall of cerebral blood vessels in 70% of dogs over the age of 10 years predominantly in the frontal cortex. CAA was demonstrated in elderly dogs as follows: in the frontal cortex (n D 19 or 63%), the parietal cortex (n D 12 or 40%), the hippocampus (40%) and the cerebellum (n D 5 or 17%). The deposits of amyloid in the wall of blood vessels detected by Congo red staining were also Ab1-14 and Ab1-42 immunohistochemically positive. Most commonly, the amyloid deposits affected a moderate number of blood vessels. The accumulation of amyloid was immunohistochemically revealed in the blood vessel walls as well as in the senile plaques and neurons. Conclusion: The amount of amyloid in the arterial walls increased with age in dogs, whereas the amyloid accumulated in plaques was Congo red negative.
Abnormally hard breast fillet consistency began to emerge in commercial broiler chickens around 2010. Due to the remarkable muscle hardness, the condition acquired the vernacular name ‘wooden breast myopathy’. This myopathy starts to develop after two weeks of age at the earliest and typically proceeds into chronic myodegeneration in three to four weeks of age. The lesion begins focally and typically develops into a diffuse lesion that involves the entire major pectoral muscle. The restricted location of wooden breast lesion in the m. pectoralis major distinguishes it from several other myodegenerative diseases that widely affect the skeletal muscle system and often the cardiac and smooth muscle systems too. Although industry-wide incidence rates are difficult to assess, it has been estimated that approximately 5-10% of commercially produced breast fillets exhibit severe WB. Even at low incidence rates, the costs to industry are substantial, as breast fillets with the wooden breast condition are often downgraded and sold at a discount, used for further processing, or in extreme cases, discarded. Because the etiology of wooden breast is still unclear, in the future, study of the early lesions, pathogenesis and the possible reduction of animal welfare are likely to gain more attention.
This investigation was conducted in order to investigate the efficacy of the detoxifying agent Mycofix® Plus (MP) in the prevention and/or alleviation in vivo adverse effects of T-2 toxin in broilers. In addition, the adsorbing potential of MP was estimated in vitro. Mean degradation levels of T-2 toxin with MP in vitro, as measured by HPTLC, varied from 26.06 to 31.02 % and the adsorption ability was elevated in acidic environment (pH 3). In vivo trial was performed on 160 one day old "Ross" broiler chicks and lasted for 21 days. Birds were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: Group 1 - negative control; Group 2 - positive control - 2 ppm T-2 toxin; Group 3 - 2 ppm T-2 toxin+2 kg/t MP; Group 4 - 2 kg/t MP. Broilers fed the diet containing 2 mg/kg of T-2 toxin without MP developed typical T-2 toxicosis. Birds that were fed the diet containing both T-2 and MP had better performances and no oral ulcerations as the dominant sign of T-2 toxicosis were observed. Histopathological examination of tissues originating from birds fed the diet containing T-2 toxin revealed degenerative changes in the oral and small intestine mucosa, necroses of enterocytes and hepatocytes, as well as depletion of lymphocytes in the bursa Fabricii. Immunohistochemical examination also revealed negative effects of T-2 toxin on cells proliferation in intestineal and bile duct mucosa, as well as on lymphocytes from bursa Fabricii. The macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver, intestine and bursa Fabricii of broilers fed a diet containing T-2 toxin and MP was mostly preserved. Cutaneous basophile hypersensitivity reaction was weaker in broilers fed mixtures containing 2 mg/kg T-2 toxin
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a worldwide distributed RNA virus that can cause severe disease in carnivore and non-carnivore species. Red foxes are highly susceptible and may act as a reservoir of the virus. As in other wild species, distemper in red foxes can manifest as acute, systemic and chronic nervous form. In the present study, we detected antibodies against CDV among red foxes in Western Serbia, and analyzed histopathologically and immunohistochemically for CDV nuclear protein antigen (CDV-NP) brain samples derived from seropositive animals. Seroprevalence of CDV antibodies was 36.8%. Histopathological changes included gliosis, neuronal degeneration, satellitosis, mononuclear inflammation, demyelination and presence of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining showed a diffuse presence of CDV-NP antigen, mainly in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and neurons. Results of this work contribute to the opinion that red foxes act as a potential reservoir of CDV and underline the importance of routine vaccination of dogs that could come in close contact with these animals. Potential active surveillance program would give a better insight in the degree of CDV infection in wildlife.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers