Since December 2019, the novel COVID-19's spread rate is exponential, and AI-driven tools are used to prevent further spreading . They can help predict, screen, and diagnose COVID-19 positive cases. Within this scope, imaging with Computed Tomography (CT) scans and Chest X-rays (CXRs) are widely used in mass triage situations. In the literature, AI-driven tools are limited to one data type either CT scan or CXR to detect COVID-19 positive cases. Integrating multiple data types could possibly provide more information in detecting anomaly patterns due to COVID-19. Therefore, in this paper, we engineered a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-tailored Deep Neural Network (DNN) that can collectively train/test both CT scans and CXRs. In our experiments, we achieved an overall accuracy of 96.28% (AUC = 0.9808 and false negative rate = 0.0208). Further, major existing DNNs provided coherent results while integrating CT scans and CXRs to detect COVID-19 positive cases.
Among radiological imaging data, Chest X-rays (CXRs) are of great use in observing COVID-19 manifestations. For mass screening, using CXRs, a computationally efficient AI-driven tool is the must to detect COVID-19-positive cases from non-COVID ones. For this purpose, we proposed a light-weight Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-tailored shallow architecture that can automatically detect COVID-19-positive cases using CXRs, with no false negatives. The shallow CNN-tailored architecture was designed with fewer parameters as compared to other deep learning models. The shallow CNN-tailored architecture was validated using 321 COVID-19-positive CXRs. In addition to COVID-19-positive cases, another set of non-COVID-19 5856 cases (publicly available, source: Kaggle) was taken into account, consisting of normal, viral, and bacterial pneumonia cases. In our experimental tests, to avoid possible bias, 5-fold cross-validation was followed, and both balanced and imbalanced datasets were used. The proposed model achieved the highest possible accuracy of 99.69%, sensitivity of 1.0, where AUC was 0.9995. Furthermore, the reported false positive rate was only 0.0015 for 5856 COVID-19-negative cases. Our results stated that the proposed CNN could possibly be used for mass screening. Using the exact same set of CXR collection, the current results were better than other deep learning models and major state-of-the-art works.
<div><div><div><p>Among radiological imaging data, chest X-rays are of great use in observing COVID-19 mani- festations. For mass screening, using chest X-rays, a computationally efficient AI-driven tool is the must to detect COVID-19 positive cases from non-COVID ones. For this purpose, we proposed a light-weight Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-tailored shallow architecture that can automatically detect COVID-19 positive cases using chest X-rays, with no false positive. The shallow CNN-tailored architecture was designed with fewer parameters as compared to other deep learning models, which was validated using 130 COVID-19 positive chest X-rays. In this study, in addition to COVID-19 positive cases, another set of non-COVID-19 cases (exactly similar to the size of COVID-19 set) was taken into account, where MERS, SARS, Pneumonia, and healthy chest X-rays were used. In experimental tests, to avoid possible bias, 5-fold cross validation was followed. Using 260 chest X-rays, the proposed model achieved an accuracy of an accuracy of 96.92%, sensitivity of 0.942, where AUC was 0.9869. Further, the reported false positive rate was 0 for 130 COVID-19 positive cases. This stated that proposed tool could possibly be used for mass screening. Note to be confused, it does not include any clinical implications. Using the exact same set of chest X-rays collection, the current results were better than other deep learning models and state-of-the-art works.</p></div></div></div>
Significant changes have been made on audio-based technologies over years in several different fields. Healthcare is no exception. One of such avenues is health screening based on respiratory sounds. In this paper, we developed a tool to detect respiratory sounds that come from respiratory infection carrying patients. Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficient (LPCC)-based features were used to characterize such audio clips. With Multilayer Perceptron (MLP)-based classifier, in our experiment, we achieved the highest possible accuracy of 99.22% that was tested on a publicly available respiratory sounds dataset (ICBHI17) (Rocha et al. Physiol. Meas. 40(3):035,001 2019) of size 6800+ clips. In addition to other popular machine learning classifiers, our results outperformed common works that exist in the literature.
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