The human mutilating disease chromoblastomycosis is caused by melanized members of the order Chaetothyriales. To assess population diversity among 123 clinical strains of agents of the disease in Brazil we applied sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, and partial cell division cycle and β-tubulin genes. Strains studied were limited to three clusters divided over the single family Herpotrichiellaceae known to comprise agents of the disease. A Fonsecaea cluster contained the most important agents, among which F. pedrosoi was prevalent with 80% of the total set of strains, followed by 13% for F. monophora, 3% for F. nubica, and a single isolate of F. pugnacius. Additional agents, among which two novel species, were located among members of the genus Rhinocladiella and Cyphellophora, with frequencies of 3% and 1%, respectively.
fWe report a fatal case of a chromoblastomycosis-like infection caused by a novel species of Fonsecaea in a 52-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian male from an area of chromoblastomycosis endemicity in Brazil. The patient had a 30-year history of slowly evolving, verrucous lesions on the right upper arm which gradually affected the entire arm, the left hemifacial area, and the nose. Subsequent dissemination to the brain was observed, which led to death of the patient. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU), BT2, and CDC42 genes of the isolates recovered from skin and brain were sequenced, confirming the novelty of the species. The species is clinically unique in causing brain abscesses secondary to chromoblastomycosis lesions despite the apparent intact immunity of the patient. Histopathologic appearances were very different, showing muriform cells in skin and hyphae in brain.
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a neglected implantation mycosis prevalent in tropical climate zones, considered an occupational disease that affects impoverished rural populations. This retrospective study described clinical aspects of CBM in a hyperendemic area in Brazil and constructed a worldwide haplotype network of Fonsecaea spp. strains. The variables were collected from medical records using a standard report form, reporting 191 patients with CBM from Maranhão, Brazil. The mean age was 56.1 years, 168 (88%) patients were male and predominantly farmers (85.8%). The mean time of evolution of the disease until diagnosis was 9.4 years. Lower limbs (81.2%) and upper limbs (14.2%) were the main sites affected. Most patients exhibited verrucous (55%) and infiltrative plaque (48.2%). Fonsecaea spp. were identified in 136 cases and a haplotype network constructed with ITS sequences of 185 global strains revealed a total of 59 haplotypes exhibiting high haplotypic and low nucleotide diversities. No correlation was observed between the different haplotypes of Fonsecaea species and dermatological patterns, severity of disease or geographic distribution inside Maranhão. Data from this area contributed to better understanding the epidemiology of CBM. For the first time, a robust haplotype network with Fonsecaea strains reveals an evolutionary history with a recent population expansion.
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in hospitalized patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its progression results in invasive infections, which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to quickly and accurately identify Candida spp. from oral mucosa of AIDS patients recruited at Presidente Vargas Hospital, in São Luís city, Brazil and to evaluate the sensitivity profile of these fungi to antifungals by using an automated system. Isolates were collected from oropharyngeal mucosa of 52 hospitalized AIDS patients, under anti-viral and antifungal therapies. Patients were included in research if they were HIV-positive, above 18 years of age and after obtaining their written consent. CHROMagar®Candida and the automated ViteK-2®system were used to isolate and identify Candida spp., respectively. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using the ViteK-2®system, complemented with the Etest®, using the drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, and voriconazole. Oropharyngeal candidiasis had a high prevalence in these hospitalized AIDS patients (83%), and the most prevalent species was Candida albicans (56%). Antifungal susceptibility test showed that 64.7% of the Candida spp. were susceptible, 11.8% were dose-dependent sensitive, and 23.5% were resistant. All the Candida krusei and Candida famata isolates and two of Candida glabrata were resistant to fluconazole. Most of AIDS patients presented oropharyngeal candidiasis and C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species. The results showed high variability in resistance among isolated species and indicates the need to identify the Candida spp. involved in the infection and the need to test antifungal susceptibility as a guide in drug therapy in patients hospitalized with AIDS. This is the first relate about AIDS patients monitoring in a public hospital in São Luís concerning the precise identification and establishing of antifungal profile of Candida spp..
Here, we provide new epidemiologic data on malignant CBM lesions, an endemic disease that is seemingly neglected worldwide. We reinforce the idea that typically chronic lesions may be predisposed to turn malignant.
Introduction: Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes that degrade β-lactam antibiotics and have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infection in worldwide. Methods: During 2009, 659 enterobacteria strains were isolated from different clinical specimens and tested for ESBL production. The disk approximation test, combined disk method and addition of clavulanic acid were used for phenotypic detection of the ESBL-producing strains and PCR for detection of the bla TEM and bla CTX-M genes. Results: Among the isolates, 125 were ESBL producers. The bla CTX-M and bla TEM genes were detected in 90.4% and 75% of the strains, respectively. Most strains were isolated from urine. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most prevalent organism. Microorganisms presented high resistance to the antibiotics. Conclusions: These results support the need for extending ESBL detection methods to different pathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae family because these methods are only currently standardized by the CLSI for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis. Carbapenems were the antibiotic class of choice for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
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