BackgroundConsidering the inequalities and the areas of low socioeconomic status in Brazil, access to health services is a challenge and the delay between diagnosis and treatment represents an important factor of worse prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Herein, we describe the clinical and epidemiological profiles of women with breast cancer and evaluate their access to health services, as well as treatment delays, at a reference centre of the Cariri region, Ceará, Brazil.MethodsThis is a retrospective study that included 473 women treated with breast cancer between 2009 and 2011 at the Oncology Centre of the Cariri.ResultsThe majority of these patients were aged between 40 and 69 years old (65.7%), without a completed high school degree (89.2%). They were married (62.9%) and were already diagnosed but had not yet been subjected to any previous treatment (77.8%). It was observed that 91.8% were referred from the public health service, and treatment was paid for by the public health service in 92.9% of the cases. The patients whose source of referral was the public system waited longer between diagnosis and the treatment initiation (p = 0.031; Mann–Whitney’s test), with a median waiting time of 71.5 days versus 39 days for those receiving referrals from private services. In addition, those with public referrals prior to diagnosis also experienced a longer waiting time between the first medical visit and treatment initiation (77 days vs. 37 days; p = 0.036; Mann–Whitney’s test), with the waiting time for the biopsy being an important factor in this delay.ConclusionsLate diagnosis was often the result of inefficiency of the prevention policies coupled with difficulty accessing the public health network. It was commonly observed that, even after diagnosis, the patients needed to wait too long before entering the Oncology Service because of long waiting queues in the public health system.
BackgroundLeprosy is a chronic infectious disease endemic in some undeveloped areas, and still represents a public health problem in Brazil. Therefore, the control of this endemic disease depends necessarily on the institution of correct treatment and containment of treatment dropout. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of published studies on treatment dropout of leprosy.MethodsWe conducted a systematic review of articles on treatment dropout of leprosy, published between january 2005 and april 2013, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases. The search was performed using the MeSH terms: “leprosy”; “patients dropouts” and the keywords: “leprosy, treatment” and “noncompliance, leprosy” in association, beside the equivalents in Portuguese.ResultsThere were originally 196 references. After analyzing the titles and abstracts of articles, 20 articles were obtained and included in the final sample.DiscussionLeprosy is a notifiable disease known as its disfiguring capability and the high rate of non-compliance to treatment. The low adhesion is responsible for the remaining potential sources of infection, irreversible complications, incomplete cure and, additionally, may lead to resistance to multiple drugs. Many factors are responsible for the interruption or dropout treatment: socioeconomic factors, education level, knowledge about the disease, lack of efficiency of health services, demographics, side effects of drugs, alcoholism, among others.ConclusionThe recent scientific literature about the subject diverge regarding the factors that most affect the dropout problem in treating leprosy patients. However, better integration between professionals and users, and greater commitment of the patient, are common points among the authors of the studies.
ABSTRACT:Introduction: breast cancer is one of the main causes of death among women in Brazil and worldwide. The diagnosis of breast neoplasms usually represents an emotional burden, and it may lead to adjustment reactions and even be the trigger for affective disorders (mainly depression), anxiety or psychosis. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is one of the most used mechanisms for the evaluation of depression in research and in clinics. Depression prevalence in patients with cancer varies from 3% to 55% among different studies. Methodological variation, different instruments to assess depression and different cut-off points for diagnosis contribute to the huge discrepancy in current findings. In general, the more specifically depression is defined and evaluated, the lower the rates of prevalence are reported. Many articles fail to demonstrate a statistical significance in the relationship between depression and cancer-specific factors. This suggests that risk factors for depression in those patients are more related to the patient as contextual variables and premorbid factors of personality -and not to the cancer or its treatment. Objective: to determine the prevalence of major depression in women with breast cancer. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in women with breast cancer. The sample consisted of 51 patients who answered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The presence of depression was considered in cases where the scores were above 20. A questionnaire with additional data about the patients such as age, marital status, ethnicity, education, family income, family history of depression and breast cancer, and cancer-related variables including staging, months since diagnosis, treatment modality, type of surgery, alopecia occurring were used. Descriptive analysis and test of association (chi-square) were conducted. Results: the prevalence of major depression was 5.9%, similar to that observed in community samples. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms had a score of 21.6% (BDI scores from 16 to 20). Chi-square test was conducted and showed no statistically significant relationship between the classification of BDI and the variables tested (characteristics related to patient and cancer-specific). This indicates that the isolated context of the variables does not influence the event of depression. Conclusion: the prevalence of major depression in women with breast neoplasms was 5.9%.
As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH]), “child” (MeSH), and “childhood depression” (keyword). Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general) are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention and treatment of childhood depression.
Results: After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. Discussion: We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Conclusion: Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.
To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS]) was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people’s welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers have been increasingly attentive to this dimension of care. However, it is necessary to improve their knowledge regarding the subject. The search highlighted that spirituality is considered a source of comfort and hope, contributing to a better acceptance of his/her chronic condition by the child with cancer, as well as by the family. Further up-to-date studies facing the subject are, thus, needed. It is also necessary to better train health care practitioners, so as to provide humanized care to the child with cancer.
BackgroundAutism is a disorder characterized by pervasive social and communicative impairments, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Its causes and effects have been researched from various neurocognitive theoretical perspectives and with the aid of neuroimaging technology. We aimed to describe biopsychosocial processes characteristic of the Autism Spectrum Disorders.MethodLiterature review using Medline and Scopus databases published between 2001 and 2011, with the keywords "autism", "theory of mind", "executive functions", "central coherence" and “fMRI”.ResultsThe studies found were plotted and organized into tables and an explanatory diagram of the main findings was produced.ConclusionsThe most popular neurocognitive theories are still unable to fully explain the characteristics of the complications that autistic spectrum disorder causes to the quality of life of individuals living with autism. The association of clinical research and neuroimaging may contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of the brain affected by the disorder.
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