Este é um artigo publicado em acesso aberto (Open Access) sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution, que permite uso, distribuição e reprodução em qualquer meio, sem restrições desde que o trabalho original seja corretamente citado. Comércio informal e formal de alimentos no AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the trading of food in schools, both informally and in canteens. The study was carried out from March to May 2011, in a universe of 110 elementary and middle schools of the municipal, state and private networks of a municipality in the central region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, of which 104 (94.5%) took part in the survey; 28.8% had a canteen, with a marked presence in the private schools. Of the schools that had no canteen, 40.4% had informal ways of food trading, mostly in the municipal schools. In the canteens there was a greater supply of fried snacks and pastries, hot dogs, pizzas, burgers, candy, chewing gum and lollipops, sodas, processed juices and water. The foods most sold in all the environments were fried goods, baked goods, hot dogs, candies, chocolates and soft drinks. In summary one can conclude that no school canteen conformed in full to current law, but the canteens of the private schools were more satisfactory than those in the other schools. Keywords
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Item response theory (IRT) is a psychometric method that provides probabilistic model-based measurements. Its use is relatively recent in the assessment of food consumption, especially through dietary assessment tools. This study aims (1) to develop a food-based diet quality scale for Brazilian schoolchildren using IRT, and (2) to apply the scale to a representative sample of schoolchildren from a Southern Brazilian city. The scale was developed with daily consumption frequency of foods from 835 students who completed the Food Intake and Physical Activity of Schoolchildren questionnaire. Questionnaire foods were grouped into 10 items according to their nutritional similarities and were evaluated by full-information factor analysis that indicated a dominant factor explaining 28% of the variance. Psychometric item analysis was performed using Samejima’s model. The scale covered all levels of diet quality, from “very poor” (scores < 95) to “very good” (scores ≥ 130). Children who had higher diet quality scores consumed beans, meat, fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and water more frequently, while reducing the consumption of ultraprocessed sugary foods, ultraprocessed savoury snacks and sausages, and sugary drinks. Of 6323 children, an average of less than 10% consumed the highest diet quality scores (good or very good diet quality) and about 60% of children consumed low diet quality scores. The scale can be applied to other schoolchildren with the same measure precision.
Omission of breakfast starts at school age and can be explained as a reflection of the independent behaviour acquired in this phase of life. Breakfast has been investigated for its association with healthier diet quality, but few studies have investigated this relationship in schoolchildren aged 7 to 13 years. The objective of this study was to assess breakfast consumption in schoolchildren aged 7 to 13 years and to examine associations with dietary patterns (DPs). It was a cross‐sectional study carried out in 2017 with 1069 students in Florianopolis, southern Brazil. Previous‐day food consumption, physical activity and screen activities were self‐reported. Factor analysis was used to identify DPs. Associations between breakfast consumption and overall DPs were evaluated using multivariate linear regression. Breakfast consumption was reported by 85% of the children, with the highest proportion observed among students on the afternoon school shift. Five DPs were identified explaining 41% of the total variance in daily food consumption: Ultra‐processed, Mixed, Traditional Brazilian Lunch, Healthy + Sweets and Traditional Brazilian Breakfast. Breakfast consumption was directly associated with a Traditional Brazilian Breakfast DP (β = 0.335; 95% CI = 0.227, 0.442), a Mixed DP (β = 0.241; 95% CI = 0.160, 0.323), and a Healthy + Sweets DP (β = 0.160; 95% CI = 0.061, 0.260), and inversely associated with an Ultra‐processed DP (β = −0.116; 95% CI = −0.207, −0.026). Breakfast consumption was associated with overall DPs, suggesting the importance of eating this meal by schoolchildren. We emphasise the relevance of offering a healthy breakfast at public schools for students who do not take this meal at home, contributing to health promotion.
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