This study evaluates whether the integration of pharmacists into health-care teams through the delivery of pharmaceutical care-based medication therapy management (MTM) services can improve the clinical outcomes of patients with chronic health conditions in the primary health-care setting. A retrospective descriptive study of 92 outpatients assisted by MTM pharmacists in primary health-care units was carried out over 28 months (median follow-up: 05 months). Patients were followed up by MTM pharmacists, with a total of 359 encounters and a ratio of 3.9 encounters per patient. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia was 29.5%, 22.0% and 19.4%, respectively. There was a high prevalence of drug-related problems with a ratio of 3.4 per patient. Pharmacists performed a total of 307 interventions to prevent or resolve drug-related problems. With regard to control of the most prevalent chronic medical conditions, a high percentage of patients reached their therapy goals by the last encounter with the pharmacist: 90.0% for hypertension, 72.3% for diabetes mellitus and 90.3% for dyslipidaemia. MTM services provided by pharmacists resolved drug therapy problems and improved patients' clinical outcomes. This study provides evidence for health-care managers of the need to expand the clinical role of pharmacists within the Brazilian public health-care system. Uniterms: Pharmaceutical care/primary care. Medication therapy management. Chronic health/ conditions. Pharmacists/professional practice/Brazil
Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender os elementos essenciais do processo de sistematização da prática clínica de uma farmacêutica da atenção primária à saúde com base no referencial teórico-metodológico da atenção farmacêutica, que subsidia o serviço clínico de gerenciamento da terapia medicamentosa. Tratouse de pesquisa qualitativa autoetnográfica, construída de forma colaborativa entre os autores, de outubro de 2014 a outubro de 2015, nos Centros de Saúde da Prefeitura Municipal de Belo Horizonte, onde uma das autoras trabalha. Os dados foram produzidos por meio de observação participante, diários de campo, reflexões e entrevistas semiestruturadas com farmacêuticos que desenvolviam prática clínica na atenção primária à saúde. Os resultados evidenciaram que os principais elementos para sistematização da prática clínica passam pela 'construção de uma nova identidade profissional na equipe multiprofissional' e pela 'incorporação de novas atividades na rotina de trabalho' que, combinadas, resultam em uma 'proposta de integração de um serviço de gerenciamento da terapia medicamentosa nos fluxos das unidades de saúde'. Dessa forma, para que o farmacêutico possa legitimar o seu papel no cuidado do paciente, é preciso mudar, transformar, reorganizar e reconstruir a sua prática. Palavras-chave autoetnografia; atenção primária à saúde; gerenciamento da terapia medicamentosa; atenção farmacêutica.Abstract The aim of this study was to understand the essential elements of the systematization process of the clinical practice of a pharmacist in primary health care. This systematization was based on the framework of pharmaceutical care practice, which provides the foundation for comprehensive medication management services. The methodology utilized was autoetnography, built collaboratively between the authors. The data have been produced through participant observation, field journals, reflections and semi structured interviews with pharmacists who are building clinical practices in primary health care. The results have demonstrated that the main elements associated with the systematization of clinical practices are 'the construction of a new professional identity in a multiprofessional team' as well as 'the incorporation of new activities in the work routine', that, combined, result in 'Integration of comprehensive medication management services in the flow of the health unit'. In this way, in order for the pharmacist to legitimize his role in patient care, it is necessary to change, to transform, to reorganize and to rebuild his practice.
ObjectiveTo understand students’ and tutors’ perceptions of the development of clinical competencies for the delivery of comprehensive medication management services in an experiential learning project linked to a Brazilian school of pharmacy.MethodsAn autoethnographic qualitative study was carried out based on participant observation, focus groups and individual interviews with students and tutors involved in an experiential learning project.ResultsThe study revealed the development of competencies related to the philosophy of practice, the pharmacotherapy workup of drug therapy and interprofessional relationships.ConclusionsThe experiential learning project contributed to the professional development of pharmacy students in pharmaceutical care practice, pointing to its potential benefits for incorporation into professional pharmacy curricula.
Cancer has high morbidity and mortality rates related to medication use and produce a costly impact in health care. Thus, patients require constant monitoring and proper coordination of care between different professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the impact generated by a Medication Therapy Management service (MTM) offered to patients with breast cancer in use of polypharmacy. Observational, exploratory, descriptive and retrospective study of a MTM service that included 93 patients. Sociodemographic and clinical data related to pharmacotherapy and the processes associated with the systematization of the service were collected and analyzed. Patients were followed-up by the MTM service on average for 18 months (±4.31) and 185 drug-related problems (DRP) were identified, an average of two DRP per patient. Of these DRP, 48.11% were resolved and 49.73% were in the resolution process. The most common DRP were in the categories of Indication (37.84%), followed by Safety (23.78%). The safety category showed the highest resolution rate (59.09%). The study revealed an increased risk of DRP for patients with three or more comorbidities and using 5 or more medications. The process of systematization of a MTM service in oncology was associated with positive outcomes.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe the process of implementation and systematization of a comprehensive medication management (CMM) service, from the perspective of the participants involved, in a high complexity service that cares for women with breast cancer in Brazil.Methods: A qualitative study that utilized action research that followed the procedures proposed by Kurt Lewin and the ethical and clinical principles of pharmaceutical care practice. Data collection techniques were participant observation between August 2014 and December 2016, semi-structured interviews with eight pharmacists and pharmacy residents, field notes, and analysis of documents.Results: Six major themes emerged in four cycles of the action research process: (1) Resistance is human; the management of conflict is necessary; (2) insecurity with being a clinician; (3) management of change supported by driving forces; (4) pharmaceutical care fostering professionals’ self-efficacy; (5) documentation as the conducting wire of the practice; and (6) the advantages of a systematized practice.Conclusion: The study offered an understanding of the process of implementation of CMM services from the perspective of pharmacists. It produced knowledge on the experiences of pharmacists as they lived through the process of transformation of their professional practice to offer a patient-centered and systematized service. The framework of Lewin supported the introduction of a new work path for pharmacists, which could be operationalized as an innovative technology for the Brazilian health-care system: CMM services.
Introdução: A experiência subjetiva com medicamentos deve ser compreendida e explorada no dia a dia da prática clínica. Objetivo: Compreender a experiência subjetiva com medicamentos de mulheres convivendo com o câncer de mama. Método: Estudo qualitativo com orientação teórico-metodológica da Experiência Subjetiva com Medicamentos, proposta por Ramalho de Oliveira & Shoemaker, e do fotovoz na perspectiva de Wang & Burris, de um hospital oncológico em Minas Gerais, entre agosto e novembro de 2017. A amostra com três participantes foi estabelecida no momento em que a inclusão de novos participantes não acrescentava nada de novo à pesquisa e os objetivos foram alcançados. O critério de inclusão foi intencional entre mulheres acompanhadas pelo serviço de Gerenciamento da Terapia Medicamentosa e que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. As participantes utilizaram fotografias para retratar as suas experiências com o uso de medicamentos. Essas fotografias foram discutidas e interpretadas nos fotodiálogos, que foram gravados e transcritos, e cujos dados foram interpretados pela análise indutiva dos dados. Resultados: A experiência com o uso de medicamentos foi definida em quatro unidades temáticas: 1. Quimioterapia e a ideia de perda de cabelo; 2. Implicações da experiência subjetiva com medicamentos nas relações familiares e de trabalho; 3. Valorizando o uso da terapia endócrina: adesão ao tratamento. 4. Resposta do corpo às reações da quimioterapia! Conclusão: Os temas do estudo validaram a importância da atenção farmacêutica operacionalizada pelo gerenciamento da terapia medicamentosa no contexto da mulher com câncer de mama.
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