We analyzed data obtained from 3365 patients with kala-azar (KA) or post-KA dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) treated by Medecins Sans Frontieres-Holland in south Sudan from October 1998-May 2002. Patients were malnourished (median body mass index [BMI], 15.5; median weight for height [WFH], 75.5%) and anemic (median hemoglobin (Hb) level, 8.5 g/dL). The proportion of patients with primary KA who were children <5 years old increased from 2.5%, in 1998, to 19.8%, in 2002 (P<.0001). Therapy with sodium stibogluconate cured 91.9% of patients with primary KA, and dosages of >850 mg per day did not decrease the chances of survival. Risk factors for death among adults were age > or =45 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.6), malnutrition (BMI, <13; OR, 11.0), anemia (Hb level, <8 g/dL; OR, 4.0), and duration of illness (duration, > or =5 months; OR, 2.3). Risk factors for death among children and adolescents were age <2 years (OR, 5.4,), malnutrition (WFH, <60%; OR, 5.0), anemia (Hb level, <6 g/dL; OR, 3.7), and splenomegaly (OR, 2.9). A higher risk of death was associated with episodes of diarrhea (OR, 1.4), vomiting (OR, 2.7), and bleeding (OR, 2.9). Relapse and PKDL occurred in 3.9% and 10.0% of cases, respectively.
The striking decline in prostate-cancer mortality in the USA compared with the UK in 1994-2004 coincided with much higher uptake of PSA screening in the USA. Explanations for the different trends in mortality include the possibility of an early effect of initial screening rounds on men with more aggressive asymptomatic disease in the USA, different approaches to treatment in the two countries, and bias related to the misattribution of cause of death. Speculation over the role of screening will continue until evidence from randomised controlled trials is published.
Concordant HIV infection and VL is a major, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness with high relapse and mortality rates; ART reduces relapses; and secondary antileishmanial prophylaxis may benefit patients at risk of relapse.
Disturbed folate metabolism is associated with an increased risk of some cancers. Our objective was to determine whether blood levels of folate, vitamin B12 and related metabolites were associated with prostate cancer risk.
Matched case-control study nested within the UK population-based ProtecT study of PSA-detected prostate cancer in men aged 50–69 years. Plasma concentrations of folate, B12 (cobalamin), holo-haptocorrin, holo- and total-transcobalamin, and total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured in 1,461 cases and 1,507 controls. ProtecT study estimates for associations of folate, B12, and tHcy with prostate cancer risk were included in a meta-analysis, based on a systematic review.
In the ProtecT study, increased B12 and holo-haptocorrin concentrations showed positive associations with prostate cancer risk (highest vs lowest quartile of B12 odds ratio (OR)=1.17 (95% CI 0.95–1.43), P-for-trend=0.06; highest vs lowest quartile of holo-haptocorrin OR=1.27 (1.04–1.56), P-for-trend=0.01); folate, holo-transcobalamin and tHcy were not associated with prostate cancer risk. In the meta-analysis, circulating B12 levels were associated with an increased prostate cancer risk (pooled OR=1.10 (1.01–1.19) per 100 pmol/L increase in B12, P=0.002); the pooled OR for the association of folate with prostate cancer was positive (OR=1.11 (0.96–1.28) per 10 nmol/L, P=0.2) and conventionally statistically significant if ProtecT (the only case-control study) was excluded (OR=1.18 (1.00–1.40) per 10 nmol/L, P=0.02).
Vitamin B12 and (in cohort studies) folate were associated with increased prostate cancer risk.
Given current controversies over mandatory fortification, further research is needed to determine whether these are causal associations.
Folate-pathway gene polymorphisms have been implicated in several cancers and investigated inconclusively in relation to prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review, which identified nine case-control studies (eight included, one excluded). We also included data from four genome-wide association studies and from a casecontrol study nested within the UK population-based Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment study. We investigated by meta-analysis the effects of eight poly-
High-dose AmBisome for VL is safe and effective in severely ill HIV-negative patients, and safe but less effective in HIV-positive patients. Combining AmBisome with another drug may enhance its effectiveness in HIV-positive VL patients. SSG should be avoided for treatment of VL in HIV-positive patients.
BackgroundFew studies have investigated factors associated with discontinuation of employment in patients with CFS/ME or quantified its impact on productivity.MethodsWe used patient-level data from five NHS CFS/ME services during the period 01/04/2006-31/03/2010 collated in the UK CFS/ME National Outcomes Database. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with discontinuation of employment. We estimated UK-wide productivity costs using patient-level data on duration of illness before assessment by a CFS/ME service, duration of unemployment, age, sex and numbers of patients, in conjunction with Office for National Statistics income and population data.ResultsData were available for 2,170 patients, of whom 1,669 (76.9%) were women. Current employment status was recorded for 1,991 patients (91.8%), of whom 811 patients (40.7%) were currently employed and 998 (50.1%) had discontinued their employment "because of fatigue-related symptoms". Older age, male sex, disability, fatigue, pain, and duration of illness were associated with cessation of employment. In a multivariable model, age, male sex, and disability remained as independent predictors. Total productivity costs among the 2,170 patients due to discontinuation of employment in the years preceding assessment by a specialist CFS/ME service (median duration of illness = 36 months) were £49.2 million. Our sample was equivalent to 4,424 UK adults accessing specialist services each year, representing productivity costs to the UK economy of £102.2 million. Sensitivity analyses suggested a range between £75.5-£128.9 million.ConclusionsCFS/ME incurs huge productivity costs amongst the small fraction of adults with CFS/ME who access specialist services.
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