Obesity is associated with significantly higher mortality rates, and excess adipose tissue is involved in respective pathologies. Here we established a human adipose tissue slice cultures (HATSC) model ex vivo. HATSC match the in vivo cell composition of human adipose tissue with, among others, mature adipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells as well as stroma tissue and immune cells. This is a new method, optimized for live imaging, to study adipose tissue and cell-based mechanisms of obesity in particular. HATSC survival was tested by means of conventional and immunofluorescence histological techniques, functional analyses and live imaging. Surgery-derived tissue was cut with a tissue chopper in 500 μm sections and transferred onto membranes building an air-liquid interface. HATSC were cultured in six-well plates filled with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), insulin, transferrin, and selenium, both with and without serum. After 0, 1, 7 and 14 days in vitro, slices were fixated and analyzed by morphology and Perilipin A for tissue viability. Immunofluorescent staining against IBA1, CD68 and Ki67 was performed to determine macrophage survival and proliferation. These experiments showed preservation of adipose tissue as well as survival and proliferation of monocytes and stroma tissue for at least 14 days in vitro even in the absence of serum. The physiological capabilities of adipocytes were functionally tested by insulin stimulation and measurement of Phospho-Akt on day 7 and 14 in vitro. Viability was further confirmed by live imaging using Calcein-AM (viable cells) and propidium iodide (apoptosis/necrosis). In conclusion, HATSC have been successfully established by preserving the monovacuolar form of adipocytes and surrounding macrophages and connective tissue. This model allows further analysis of mature human adipose tissue biology ex vivo.
Regulator of Chromatin Condensation 1 (RCC1) is the only known guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts on the Ras-like G protein Ran and plays a key role in cell cycle regulation. Although there is growing evidence to support the relationship between RCC1 and cancer, detailed pancancer analyses have not yet been performed. In this genome database study, based on The Cancer Genome Atlas, Genotype-Tissue Expression and Gene Expression Omnibus databases, the potential role of RCC1 in 33 tumors’ entities was explored. The results show that RCC1 is highly expressed in most human malignant neoplasms in contrast to healthy tissues. RCC1 expression is closely related to the prognosis of a broad variety of tumor patients. Enrichment analysis showed that some tumor-related pathways such as “cell cycle” and “RNA transport” were involved in the functional mechanism of RCC1. In particular, the conducted analysis reveals the relation of RCC1 to multiple immune checkpoint genes and suggests that the regulation of RCC1 is closely related to tumor infiltration of cancer-associated fibroblasts and CD8+ T cells. Coherent data demonstrate the association of RCC1 with the tumor mutation burden and microsatellite instability in various tumors. These findings provide new insights into the role of RCC1 in oncogenesis and tumor immunology in various tumors and indicate its potential as marker for therapy prognosis and targeted treatment strategies.
Lower-grade glioma (LGG) is a group of tumors arising from the cells of the central nervous system. Although various therapy interventions are used, the prognosis remains different. Novel biomarkers are needed for the prognosis of disease and novel therapeutic strategies in LGG. The procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase (PLOD) family contains three members and is related to multiple cancers, yet it was not investigated in LGG. Data from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohorts were used to analyze the role of PLOD in LGG. As the PLOD family is involved in processes, such as tumor formation and cancer metastasis, we focused on its relationship to the tumor microenvironment (TME) in LGG. A high expression of the PLOD family relates to poor prognosis and high infiltration of immune cells within the TME. The expression level of the PLOD family might become a novel biomarker for prognosis and is a potential target for individual treatment decisions in LGG.
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS), a group of rare malignant tumours with high tissue heterogeneity, still lack effective clinical stratification and prognostic models. Therefore, we conducted this study to establish a reliable prognostic gene signature. Using 189 STS patients’ data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, a four-gene signature including DHRS3, JRK, TARDBP and TTC3 was established. A risk score based on this gene signature was able to divide STS patients into a low-risk and a high-risk group. The latter had significantly worse overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS), and Cox regression analyses showed that the risk score is an independent prognostic factor. Nomograms containing the four-gene signature have also been established and have been verified through calibration curves. In addition, the predictive ability of this four-gene signature for STS metastasis free survival was verified in an independent cohort (309 STS patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus database). Finally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis indicated that the four-gene signature may be related to some pathways associated with tumorigenesis, growth, and metastasis. In conclusion, our study establishes a novel four-gene signature and clinically feasible nomograms to predict the OS and RFS. This can help personalized treatment decisions, long-term patient management, and possible future development of targeted therapy.
The overexpression of the enzymes involved in the degradation of procollagen lysine is correlated with various tumor entities. Procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3 (PLOD3) expression was found to be correlated to the progression and migration of cancer cells in gastric, lung and prostate cancer. Here, we analyzed the gene expression, protein expression, and the clinical parameters of survival across 33 cancers based on the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), function annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), Human Protein Atlas (HPA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. Genetic alteration, immune infiltration and relevant cellular pathways were analyzed in detail. PLOD3 expression negatively correlated with survival periods and the infiltration level of CD8+ T cells, but positively correlated to the infiltration of cancer associated fibroblasts in diverse cancers. Immunohistochemistry in colon carcinomas, glioblastomas, and soft tissue sarcomas further confirm PLOD 3 expression in human cancer tissue. Moreover, amplification and mutation accounted for the largest proportion in esophageal adenocarcinoma and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma, respectively; the copy number alteration of PLOD3 appeared in all cancers from TCGA; and molecular mechanisms further proved the effect of PLOD3 on tumorigenesis. In particular, PLOD3 expression appears to have a tumor immunological effect, and is related to multiple immune cells. Furthermore, it is also associated with tumor mutation burden and microsatellite instability in various tumors. PLOD3 acts as an inducer of various cancers, and it could be a potential biomarker for prognosis and targeted treatment.
Despite various treatment attempts, the heterogenous group of soft tissue sarcomata (STS) with more than 100 subtypes still shows poor outcomes. Therefore, effective biomarkers for prognosis prediction and personalized treatment are of high importance. The Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase (PLOD) gene family, which is related to multiple cancer entities, consists of three members which encode important enzymes for the formation of connective tissue. The relation to STS, however, has not yet been explored. In this study, data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) databases were used to analyze the role of PLOD1–3 in STS. It was found that an overexpression of PLOD family members correlates with poor prognosis, which might be due to an increased infiltration of immune-related cells in the tumor microenvironment. In STS, the expression of PLOD genes could be a novel biomarker for prognosis and a personalized, more aggressive treatment in these patients.
Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) encodes a multifunctional protein that is involved in many cellular processes. However, the potential role of PTTG1 in tumor formation and its prognostic function in human pan-cancer is still unknown. The analysis of gene alteration, PTTG1 expression, prognostic function, and PTTG1-related immune analysis in 33 types of tumors was performed based on various databases such as The Cancer Genome Atlas database, the Genotype-Tissue Expression database, and the Human Protein Atlas database. Additionally, PTTG1-related gene enrichment analysis was performed to investigate the potential relationship and possible molecular mechanisms between PTTG1 and tumors. Overexpression of PTTG1 may lead to tumor formation and poor prognosis in various tumors. Consequently, PTTG1 acts as a potential oncogene in most tumors. Additionally, PTTG1 is related to immune infiltration, immune checkpoints, tumor mutational burden, and microsatellite instability. Thus, PTTG1 could be potential biomarker for both prognosis and outcomes of tumor treatment and it could also be a promising target in tumor therapy.
Background and Aims: There is sparse information on the prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for the outcomes in patients with left ventricular thrombus (LVT).Methods: Patients diagnosed with LVT by transthoracic echocardiography between November 2009 to July 2020 at our institution were included. The endpoints were all-cause mortality and systemic embolism.Results: Ninety-two subjects were finally included in the study. The mean age of the cohort was 56.73 ± 14.12, and 80.4% of the patients were male. The median BNP (1st quartile−3rd quartile) was 437.5 (112.74–1317.5). The total all-cause mortality rate was 30.44% (28/92), and the 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative survival rates were 85.4, 75.5, and 66.5%, respectively. Systemic embolism was identified in 10 subjects. COX multivariate analysis showed that Log BNP (HR, 4.16; 95%CI, 1.81–9.56; P = 0.001) and BMI (HR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.73–0.99; P = 0.048) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. In addition, patients with BNP levels in the upper median (≥ 437.5 pg/ml) had significantly higher all-cause mortality rate compared to those with lower median BNP (<437.5 pg/ml; P = 0.004). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for BNP and all-cause mortality was 0.71. In the linear trend test, BNP quartiles were significantly related to all-cause mortality in all models, and the P-values for trend in models 1, 2, and 3 were 0.005, 0.006, and 0.048, respectively.Conclusion: BNP level is a prognostic factor for all-cause mortality in LVT patients, and elevated BNP is indicative of a higher risk of LVT.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers