BackgroundTwo trials were performed to evaluate a partially defatted Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal as potential feed ingredient in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets. In the first trial, 360 trout (178.9 ± 9.8 g of mean initial body weight) were randomly divided into three experimental groups (4 tanks/treatment, 30 fish/tank). The fish were fed for 78 days with isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets containing increasing levels of HI, on as fed basis: 0% (HI0, control diet), 25% (HI25) and 50% (HI50) of fish meal substitution, corresponding to dietary inclusion levels of 0, 20% and 40%. In the second trial, 36 trout (4 tanks/treatment, 3 fish/tank) were used to evaluate the in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of the same diets used in the first trial.ResultsSurvival, growth performance, condition factor, somatic indexes, and dorsal fillet physical quality parameters were not affected by diet. The highest dietary inclusion of HI larvae meal increased dry matter and ether extract contents of trout dorsal fillet. The use of HI larvae meal induced a decrease of valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) even if differences were only reported at the highest level of HI inclusion. The insect meal worsened the lipids health indexes of the same muscle. Dietary inclusion of insect meal did not alter the villus height of the fish. No differences were found among treatments in relation to ADC of ether extract and gross energy, while ADC of dry matter and crude protein were higher in HI25 if compared to HI50.ConclusionsThe obtained results showed that a partially defatted HI larvae meal can be used as feed ingredient in trout diets up to 40% of inclusion level without impacting survival, growth performance, condition factor, somatic indexes, dorsal fillet physical quality parameters, and intestinal morphology of the fish. However, further investigations on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit the observed negative effects of the insect meal on the FA composition of dorsal muscle.
This study evaluated the effects of diets containing Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal on growth performances, somatic indexes, nutrient digestibility, dorsal muscle proximate and fatty acid (FA) compositions of rainbow trout. Three hundred sixty fish were randomly divided into three groups with four replicates each. The groups were fed diets differing in TM inclusion: 0% (TM0), 25% (TM25) and 50% (TM50) as fed weight basis. Weight gain was not affected by treatment. Feeding rate was significantly higher in TM0 than TM50. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in TM0 than TM25 and TM50, while an opposite trend was observed for protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. The survival rate was significantly lower in TM0 than TM25 and TM50. The apparent digestibility of protein was significantly lower in the TM50 group than the other groups, while the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and lipids was unaffected by treatment. If compared to control, the protein and lipid contents of fillets were respectively increased and decreased following TM inclusion in the diet. The Σn3/Σn6 FA ratio of fish dorsal muscle was linearly (TM0>TM25>TM50) reduced by TM inclusion in the diet. Results suggested that TM could be used during the growing phase in trout farming; however, additional studies on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit its negative effects on the lipid fraction of fillets.
View related articles View Crossmark data Citing articles: 4 View citing articles PAPER Partial or total replacement of soybean oil by black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) fat in broiler diets: effect on growth performances, feed-choice, blood traits, carcass characteristics and meat quality
BackgroundThe present study has evaluated the effects of different inclusion levels of a partially defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.; HI) larva meal on the growth performance, blood parameters and gut morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 256 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were reared from d 1 to d 35 and assigned to 4 dietary treatments (8 replicates/treatment and 8 birds/replicate). HI larva meal was included at increasing levels (0, 5%, 10% and 15%; HI0, HI5, HI10 and HI15, respectively) in isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets formulated for 3 feeding phases: starter (1–10 d), growing (10–24 d) and finisher (24–35 d). Two birds per pen were slaughtered at d 35 and morphometric investigations and histopathological alterations were performed.ResultsThe live weight (LW) showed linear and quadratic responses to increasing HI larva meal (maximum for HI10 group). Average daily gain (ADG) showed a linear and quadratic responses to HI meal (maximum for HI10 group) during starter and growing periods. A linear decrease was observed for ADG during the finisher period. The daily feed intake (DFI) showed a linear and quadratic effect during the starter period (maximum for HI10 group). Linear and quadratic responses were observed for the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in the growing period and for the whole period of the experiment. The FCR showed a linear response in the finisher period (maximum for HI15). No significant effects were observed for the blood and serum parameters, except for the phosphorus concentration, which showed linear and quadratic responses as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the latter of which showed a linear response. The HI15 birds showed a lower villus height, a higher crypt depth and a lower villus height-to-crypt depth ratio than the other groups.ConclusionsIncreasing levels of dietary HI meal inclusion in male broiler chickens may improve the LW and DFI during the starter period, but may also negatively affect the FCR and gut morphology, thus suggesting that low levels may be more suitable. However, no significant effects on the haematochemical parameters or histological findings were observed in relation to HI meal utilization.
In 2018, the industrial compound feed production throughout the world was 1.103 metric billion tons, which was an increase of 3% compared to 2017. In order to meet the needs of the increasing population, a further increment in compound feed production is necessary. Conventional protein sources are no longer suitable to completely satisfy the increment of feed production in a sustainable way. Insects are one of the most promising options, due to their valuable nutritional features. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of research on the use of insect meals and oils in aquatic, avian and other animal species diets, focusing mainly on the effects on digestibility, performance and product quality. In general, insect-derived product digestibility is affected by the insect species, the inclusion levels and by the process. Sometimes, the presence of chitin can lead to a decrease in nutrient digestibility. The same considerations are true for animal performance. As far as product quality is concerned, a dramatic effect of insect products has been recorded for the fatty acid profile, with a decrease in valuable n3 fatty acids. Sensory analyses have reported no or slight differences. Insect-derived products seem to be a good alternative to conventional feed sources and can make an important contribution to the sustainable development of the livestock industry.
BackgroundThe study aimed to determine the apparent total tract digestibility coefficients (ATTDC) of nutrients, the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and AMEn) and the amino acid (AA) apparent ileal digestibility coefficients (AIDC) of a partially defatted (BSFp) and a highly defatted (BSFh) black soldier fly larvae meal. The experimental diets were: a basal diet and two diets prepared by substituting 250 g/kg (w/w) of the basal diet with BSFp or BSFh, respectively.ResultsSignificant differences were found between BSFp and BSFh meals for ATTDC of the nutrients: BSFp resulted more digestible than BSFh, except for ATTDC of CP which did not differed between meals, while a statistical trend was observed for ATTDC of DM and EE. The AME and AMEn values were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the two BSF meals, with higher levels for BSFp (16.25 and 14.87 MJ/kg DM, respectively). The AIDC of the AA in BSFp ranged from 0.44 to 0.92, while in BSFh they ranged from 0.45 to 0.99. No significant differences were observed for the AA digestibility (0.77 and 0.80 for BSFp and BSFh, respectively), except for glutamic acid, proline and serine that were more digestible in the BSFh meal (P < 0.05).ConclusionsDefatted BSF meals can be considered as an excellent source of AME and digestible AA for broilers with a better efficient nutrient digestion. These considerations suggested the effective utilization of defatted BSF larvae meal in poultry feed formulation.
Insects are currently being considered as a novel protein source for animal feeds, because they contain a large amount of protein. The larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TM) have been shown to be an acceptable protein source for broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, but till now, no data on histological or intestinal morphometric features have been reported. This study has had the aim of evaluating the effects of dietary TM inclusion on the performance, welfare, intestinal morphology and histological features of free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: (i) a control group and (ii) a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g/kg. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. Growth performance, haematological and serum parameters and welfare indicators were evaluated, and the animals were slaughtered at the age of 97 days. Two birds per pen (10 birds/treatment) were submitted to histological (liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, heart, glandular stomach and gut) and morphometric (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) investigations. The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens, thus confirming that TM can be used safely in poultry diets.
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