Direct dehydrative α-alkylation reactions of ketones with alcohols are now realized under simple, practical, and green conditions without using external catalysts. These catalyst-free autocatalyzed alkylation methods can efficiently afford useful alkylated ketone or alcohol products in a one-pot manner and on a large scale by CC bond formation of the in situ generated intermediates with subsequent controllable and selective Meerwein-Pondorf-Verley-Oppenauer-type redox processes.
Fibrosis progression in the lung commonly results in impaired functional gas exchange, respiratory failure, or even death. In addition to the aberrant activation and differentiation of lung fibroblasts, persistent alveolar injury and incomplete repair are the driving factors of lung fibrotic response. Macrophages are activated and polarized in response to lipopolysaccharide- or bleomycin-induced lung injury. The classically activated macrophage (M1) and alternatively activated macrophage (M2) have been extensively investigated in lung injury, repair, and fibrosis. In the present review, we summarized the current data on monocyte-derived macrophages that are recruited to the lung, as well as alveolar resident macrophages and their polarization, pyroptosis, and phagocytosis in acute lung injury (ALI). Additionally, we described how macrophages interact with lung epithelial cells during lung repair. Finally, we emphasized the role of macrophage polarization in the pulmonary fibrotic response, and elucidated the potential benefits of targeting macrophage in alleviating pulmonary fibrosis.
The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained.
This study considers a design problem in the supply chain network of an assembly manufacturing enterprise with economies of scale and environmental concerns. The study aims to obtain a rational tradeoff between environmental influence and total cost. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed to determine the optimal location and size of regional distribution centers (RDCs) and the investment of environmental facilities considering the effects of economies of scale and CO2 emission taxes. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed model. Moreover, comparative analysis of the related key parameters is conducted (i.e., carbon emission tax, logistics demand of customers, and economies of scale of RDC), to explore the corresponding effects on the network design of a green supply chain. Moreover, the proposed model is applied in an actual case—network design of a supply chain of an electric meter company in China. Findings show that (i) the optimal location of RDCs is affected by the demand of customers and the level of economies of scale and that (ii) the introduction of CO2 emission taxes will change the structure of a supply chain network, which will decrease CO2 emissions per unit shipment.
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