Obesity-induced insulin resistance is the hallmark of metabolic syndrome, and chronic, low-grade tissue inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance through the activation of tissue-infiltrating immune cells. Current therapeutic approaches lack efficacy and immunomodulatory capacity. Thus, a new therapeutic approach is needed to prevent chronic inflammation and alleviate insulin resistance. Here, we synthesized a tetrahedral framework nucleic acid (tFNA) nanoparticle that carried resveratrol (RSV) to inhibit tissue inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity in obese mice. The prepared nanoparticles, namely tFNAs-RSV, possessed the characteristics of simple synthesis, stable properties, good water solubility, and superior biocompatibility. The tFNA-based delivery ameliorated the lability of RSV and enhanced its therapeutic efficacy. In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, the administration of tFNAs-RSV ameliorated insulin resistance by alleviating inflammation status. tFNAs-RSV could reverse M1 phenotype macrophages in tissues to M2 phenotype macrophages. As for adaptive immunity, the prepared nanoparticles could repress the activation of Th1 and Th17 and promote Th2 and Treg, leading to the alleviation of insulin resistance. Furthermore, this study is the first to demonstrate that tFNAs, a nucleic acid material, possess immunomodulatory capacity. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that tFNAs-RSV alleviate insulin resistance and ameliorate inflammation in HFD mice, suggesting that nucleic acid materials or nucleic acid-based delivery systems may be a potential agent for the treatment of insulin resistance and obesity-related metabolic diseases.
In a search for a solution to large-area soft and hard tissue defects, whether or not tissue regeneration or tissue-substitutes transplantation is used, the problems with angiogenesis need to be solved urgently. Thus, a new and efficient proangiogenic approach is needed. Nanoengineering systems have been considered one of the most promising approaches. In this study, we modify the tetrahedral framework nucleic acid (tFNA) for the first time with two different angiogenic DNA aptamers to form aptamer–tFNA nanostructures, tFNA–Apt02 and tFNA–AptVEGF, and the effects of them on angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo are investigated. We develop new nanomaterials for enhancing angiogenesis to solve the problem of tissue engineering vascularization and ischemic diseases. The results of our study confirm that tFNA–Apt02 and tFNA–AptVEGF has a stronger ability to accelerate endothelial cell proliferation and migration, tubule formation, spheroid sprouting, and angiogenesis in vivo. We first demonstrate that the engineered novel tFNA–Apt02 and tFNA–AptVEGF have promoting effects on angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo and provide a theoretical basis and opportunity for their application in tissues engineering vascularization and ischemic diseases.
Conventional antiangiogenetic inhibitors suffered from poor delivery problems that result in unsatisfactory antitumor treatment efficacy. Although the liposomes or nanomaterial-based delivery systems can improve the therapeutic efficacy of antiangiogenic molecules, the assembly process is far too complex. Herein, a nanomaterial or a new nanodrug that could work without the help of a carrier and could be easily synthesized is needed. Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) are a kind of ideal nanostructures that could spontaneously enter into the cell and could be synthesized by a relatively easy one-pot method. Here, changing the traditional ligand glutathione (GSH) into an anti-Flt1 peptide (AF) has enriched the newly synthesized AF@AuNCs with targeted antiangiogenic properties. Based on the specific binding between AF and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), the interaction between VEGFR1 and its ligands could be blocked. Furthermore, the expression of VEGFR2 could be downregulated. Compared with pure AF peptide- and GSH-participated AuNCs (GSH@AuNCs), AF@AuNCs were more effective in inhibiting both tube formation and migration of the endothelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) experiment and antitumor experiment were conducted to further verify the enhanced antiangiogenesis and tumor inhibition effect of AF@AuNCs. Our findings provide promising evidence of a carrier-free nanodrug for tumors and other vascular hyperproliferative diseases.
Background Diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) is a systemic metabolic bone disease caused by diabetes mellitus (DM). Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) play an important role in bone regeneration. Our previous study confirmed that ASCs from DOP mice (DOP-ASCs) have a lower osteogenesis potential compared with control ASCs (CON-ASCs). However, the cause of this poor osteogenesis has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study investigated the underlying mechanism of the decline in the osteogenic potential of DOP-ASCs from the perspective of epigenetics and explored methods to enhance their osteogenic capacity. Methods The expression level of JNK1-associated membrane protein (JKAMP) and degree of DNA methylation in CON-ASCs and DOP-ASCs were measured by mRNA expression profiling and MeDIP sequencing, respectively. JKAMP small interfering RNA (siRNA) and a Jkamp overexpression plasmid were used to assess the role of JKAMP in osteogenic differentiation of CON-ASCs and DOP-ASCs. Immunofluorescence, qPCR, and western blotting were used to measure changes in expression of Wnt signaling pathway-related genes and osteogenesis-related molecules after osteogenesis induction. Alizarin red and ALP staining was used to confirm the osteogenic potential of stem cells. Bisulfite-specific PCR (BSP) was used to detect JKAMP methylation degree. Results Expression of JKAMP and osteogenesis-related molecules (RUNX2 and OPN) in DOP-ASCs was decreased significantly in comparison with CON-ASCs. JKAMP silencing inhibited the Wnt signaling pathway and reduced the osteogenic ability of CON-ASCs. Overexpression of JKAMP in DOP-ASCs rescued the impaired osteogenic capacity caused by DOP. Moreover, JKAMP in DOP-ASCs contained intragenic DNA hypermethylated regions related to the downregulation of JKAMP expression. Conclusions Intragenic DNA methylation inhibits the osteogenic ability of DOP-ASCs by suppressing expression of JKAMP and the Wnt signaling pathway. This study shows an epigenetic explanation for the reduced osteogenic ability of DOP-ASCs and provides a potential therapeutic target to prevent and treat osteoporosis.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creat ive Commo ns Attri bution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objectives The nano‐hydroxyapatite (nHAp) is widely used to develop imaging probes and drug carriers due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, traditional methods usually need cumbersome and stringent conditions such as high temperature and post‐modification to prepare the functionalized nHAp, which do not benefit the particles to enter cells due to the increased particle size. Herein, a biomimetic synthesis strategy was explored to achieve the AS1411‐targeted tumour dual‐model bioimaging using DNA aptamer AS1411 as a template. Then, the imaging properties and the biocompatibility of the synthesized AS‐nFAp:Gd/Tb were further investigated. Materials and methods The AS‐nFAp:Gd/Tb was prepared under mild conditions through a one‐pot procedure with AS1411 as a template. Besides, the anticancer drug DOX was loaded to AS‐nFAp:Gd/Tb so as to achieve the establishment of a multifunctional nano‐probe that integrated the tumour diagnosis and treatment. The AS‐nFAp:Gd/Tb was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy disperse X‐ray Spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum, X‐ray diffraction (XRD), fourier‐transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis analyses, zeta potential and particle sizes. The in vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging were performed on an MRI system and a confocal laser scanning microscope, respectively. The potential of the prepared multifunctional nHAp for a targeted tumour therapy was investigated by a CCK‐8 kit. And the animal experiments were conducted on the basis of the guidelines approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Sichuan University, China. Results In the presence of AS1411, the as‐prepared AS‐nFAp:Gd/Tb presented a needle‐like morphology with good monodispersity and improved imaging performance. Furthermore, due to the specific binding between AS1411 and nucleolin up‐expressed in cancer cells, the AS‐nFAp:Gd/Tb possessed excellent AS1411‐targeted fluorescence and MRI imaging properties. Moreover, after loading chemotherapy drug DOX, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that DOX@AS‐nFAp:Gd/Tb could effectively deliver DOX to tumour tissues and exert a highly effective tumour inhibition without systemic toxicity compared with pure DOX. Conclusions The results indicated that the prepared multifunctional nHAp synthesized by a novel biomimetic strategy had outstanding capabilities of recognition and treatment for the tumour and had good biocompatibility; hence, it might have a potential clinical application in the future.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers