The establishment of normative data and screening cut-points for cognitive tasks is important to ensure the effective and timely detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These need to be culturally relevant and account for known factors that impact on cognition such as age, education, and gender. In this study, 1,068 elderly Chinese residents of Shanghai completed a comprehensive series of cognitive tasks as part of a community screening study with 1027 meeting criteria for analysis, age M(SD) = 72.54 (8.40). MCI was detected in 267 individuals, AD in 50, and 710 had normal cognition. Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis indicated that the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) best differentiated normal cognition from MCI and AD. We present suggested cut-points to differentiate between normal cognition and MCI and AD for the total sample, and when split according to education levels, age, and gender. Trends suggest that the MoCA was better suited to detecting MCI, and the MMSE was better for detecting AD. For younger and more educated participants, only a slight impairment was necessary to meet screening criteria, while a larger impairment was necessary for older and less educated participants. Both tasks had a high negative predictive values for MCI and AD, and variable positive predictive values. The cut-points presented can be used to inform future work using the MMSE and MoCA to screen for MCI and AD in older Chinese people. (PsycINFO Database Record
Amnestic MCI (aMCI) has notably increased in Shanghai, China.
The study was designed to estimate the prevalence and incidence rates of aMCI and to determine
the risk and protective factors for aMCI among persons ≥ 60 years-old and ≥ 70 years-old in Shanghai communities,
We carried out this 1-year longitudinal study to survey a random sample of 1,302 individuals ≥ 60
years-old, to collect baseline and follow-up data about lifestyle through self-reports, and vascular and comorbid
conditions from medical records and a physical examination. We also analyzed a subgroup of individuals ≥
The prevalence rate of aMCI in persons ≥ 60 years-old was 22.3%, and the incidence rate (per 1,000
person-years) was 96.9. Being female was a risk factor for aMCI; protective factors included smoking, drinking
tea, engaging in intellectual work before retirement, social activities and hobbies, regular reading habits,
and surfing the internet. The prevalence rate of aMCI in persons ≥ 70 years was 30.3%, and the incidence rate
was 145.6. Smoking, drinking tea, and surfing the internet were not protective factors for this age group (≥ 70
The present study indicates that aMCI is a considerable health problem in Shanghai. Preventive
strategies for aMCI are needed to enhance lifestyle factors that promote brain activity.
Higher rates of dementia were detected than previously reported in China. Normative data is presented for common cognitive and mental health assessment and screening tasks in a Chinese population. This suggests that the true incidence of dementia has been underestimated, and requires further investigation.
Main observation and conclusion
Nine undescribed dihydro‐β‐agarofuran sesquiterpenoid derivatives (1—9), along with a known analogue (10), were obtained from the leaves of Tripterygium wilfordii. Their gross structures were determined via extensive spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were elucidated by means of single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction analysis and electron circular dichroism (ECD) techniques, which include ECD exciton chirality, octant rule of saturated cyclohexanone and comparison between the experimental and calculated ECD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their neuroprotective activities against H2O2‐induced cell injury in human neuroblastoma SH‐SY5Y cells. Compounds 5 and 6 improved cell viability by 16.15% and 15.12% compared with the H2O2 treated group at 25 μmol·L–1, respectively.
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